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141 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Affirmative Action
Effort by employers to increase employment opportunities for qualified members of protected groups that appear to be inadequately represented in the firm's labor force
Cultural Diversity
Recognition, acknowledgement, appreciation, and positive use of the rich variety of differences among people at work.
Biased treatment of other individuals and groups
Dysfunctional Effect
Unfavorable impact of an action or a change on a system
Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO)
Provision of equal opportunities to secure jobs and earn rewards in them, regardless of conditions unrelated to job performance
Functional effect
Favorable impact of an action or a change on a system.
Equal Pay Act of 1963
Federal legislation demanding that reward systems be designed and administered so that persons doing the same or equal work receive equal pay regardless of their sex
Process through which employees successfully exert influence on the social system around them.
Person who serves as a role model to help other employees gain valuable advice on roles to play and behaviors to avoid
Open systems
Systems that engage in exchanges with their environments through their boundaries, receiving inputs and providing outputs.
Organizational culture
The values, beliefs, and norms that are shared by an organization's members
Organizational socialization
Continuous process of transmitting key elements of an organization's culture to it's employees
Negative attitudes toward other individuals or groups.
Person who receives and accepts advice and examples from a trusted mentor
Psychological contract
Unwritten agreement that defines the conditions of each employee's psychological involvement with the system-what they intend to give to it and receive from it.
Pattern of actions expected of a person in activities involving others
Role Ambiguity
Feeling that arises when roles are inadequatley defined or are substantially unknown.
Role Conflict
Feeling that arises when others have different perceptions or expectations of a person's role
Role Models
Leaders who serve as examples for their followers.
Role Perceptions
How people think that they are supposed to act in their own roles and others should act in their roles.
Social Culture
Social environment of human-created beliefs, customs, knowledge, and practices that defines conventional behavior in a society
Social equilibrium
Dynamic working balance among the interdependent parts of a system.
Social responsibility
Recognition that organizations have significant influence on the social system, which must be considered and balanced in all organizational actions.
Social system
Complex set of human relationships interacting in many ways
Social rank of a person in a group
Status anxiety
Employee's feelings of being upset because of differences between their actual and desired status level.
Status deprivation
Loss of status, or a level of insufficient status, for a person. Also known as losing face.
Status symbols
Visible, external things that attach to a person or workplace and serve as evidence of social rank.
Status systems
Heirarchies of status that define employee rank relative to others in the group.
The process of using memorable stories to help forge a culture and communicate key values to employees
Valuing Diversity
Philosophy and programs asserting that differences among people need to be recognized, acknowledged, appreciated, and used to collective advantage.
Work Ethic
Employee attitude of viewing work as a central life interest and desirable goal
Achievement motivation
Drive to overcome challenges and obstacles in the pursuit of goals
Affiliation motivation
Drive to relate to people on a social basis
Employee motivation for achievement, affiliation, or power.
E-R-G Model
Motivational model, developed by Clayton Alderfer, suggesting that there are three need levels-existence, relatedness, and growth
Equity Sensitivity
Recognition that employees have different preferences for over-reward, equity, or under-reward
Equity Theory
Employees tendency to judge fairness by comparing their relevant inputs to the outcomes they receive, and also comparing this ration to those of other people
Existence needs
Physiological and security factors
Strengths of belief that work-related effort will result in successful completion of a task (performance).
Expectancy Model
Theory that motivation is a product of three factors: Valence, Expectancy, and Instrumentality
Withholding of significant positive consequences that were previously provided for desirable behavior
Extrinsic Motivators
External rewards that occur appart from work
Goal Setting
Establishment of targets and objectives for successful performance, both long-run and short-run.
Growth Needs
Needs related to the desire for self esteem and self actualization
Hierarchy of Needs
Philosophy, developed by Abraham Maslow, that different groups of needs have a specific order of priority among most people, so that one group of needs precedes another in importance.
Higher-order needs
Need levels 3 to 5 (social, esteem, and self-actualization) on the Maslow hierarchy of needs.
Hygiene factors
Conditions that tend to satisfy workers when they exist and to disatisfy workers when they do not exist, but their existence tends not to be strongly motivating. Also known as maintenance factors.
Imposter phenomenon
Belief that one's personal capabilities are not as great as other people believe them to be.
All the rich and diverse elements that employees believe they bring, or contribute, to their jobs.
Belief that a reward will be received once a task is accomplished.
Intrinsic motivators
Internal rewards that a person feels when performing a job, so that there is a direct and immediate connection between work and reward.
Job content
Conditions that relate directly to the job itself and the employee's performace of it, rather than conditions in the environment external to the job.
Job context
Job conditions in the environment surrounding the job, rather than those directly related to job performance.
Law of effect
Tendency of a person to repeat behavior that is accompanied by favorable consequences and not to repeate behavior accompanied by unfavorable consequences.
Lower-order needs
Needs levels 1 and 2 (physiological and safety/security) on the Maslow hierarchy of needs
Strength of the drive towrad an action
Motivational factors
Conditions that tend to motivate workers when they exist, but their absence rarely is strongly dissatisfying.
Negative reinforcement
Removal of an unfavorable consequence that accompanies behavior.
Organizational behavior modification (OB Mod)
Behavior modification used in organizations to shape individual behavior through the use of positive and negative consequences.
Rewards employees perceive they get from their job and employer
Partial reinforcement
The act of encouraging learning by reinforcing some correct behaviors on one of four possible schedules.
Performance feedback
Timely provision of data or judgment regarding task-related results.
Performance monitoring
Observing behavior, inspecting output, or studying documents of performace indicators
Positive reinforcement
Favorable consequence that accompanies behavior and encourages repetition of the behavior
Power motivation
Drive to influence people and change situations
Primary needs
Basic physiological and security needs
Primary outcomes
Rewards that employees receive directly as a result of their actions
Unfavorable consequence that accompanies behavior and discourages repetition of the behavior.
Reinforcement, continuous
Reinforcement accompanying each correct behavior.
Reinforcement, fixed-interval
Reinforcement after a certain period of time
Reinforcement, fixed-ratio
Reinforcement after a certain number of correct responses.
Reinforcement, variable-interval
Reinforcement after a variety of time periods
Reinforcement, variable-ration
Reinforcement after a variable number of correct responses.
Relatedness needs
Needs that involve the desire of an employee to be understood and accepted.
Secondary Needs
Social and psychological neds
Secondary outcomes
Rewards that employees receive indirectly, following their primary outcomes
need to become all that one is capable of becoming
Internal belief that one has the necessary capabilities and competencies to perform a task, fulfill role expectations, or meet a challenging situation successfully.
Systematic and progressive application of positive reinforcement as behavior comes closer to the desired behavior
Two-Factor model of motivatoin
Motivational model developed by Frederick Herzberg, which concludes that one set of job conditions (motivators) primarily motivates an employee and produces satisfaction if they are adequate, while a different set (hygience factors) primarily dissatisfies the employee if they are inadequate.
Strength of a person' preference for receiving a reward.
Valence x expectancy x instrumentality = motivation
Expectancy theory developed by Vroom that motivation is a product of three factors.
Appraisal Interview
Session in which supervisors provide feedback to their employees on past performance, discuss problems, and invite a response.
At-risk pay
Amount of employee pay that will not be received if employee does not achieve certain individual performance targets.
Process by which people interpret the causes of their own and others' behavior.
Comparable worth
Attempt to give employees in comparable job-those of equal value to an employer-similar levels of pay
Complete pay program
Comprehensiver reward system that uses different bases of pay to accomplish various objectives (e.g. retention, production, teamwork)
cost-reward comparison
Process in which employees identify and compare personal costs and rewards to determine the point at which they are approximately equal.
Economic incentive system
System that varies an employee's pay in proportion to some criterion of individual, group, or organizational performance.
Fundamental attribution bias
Tendency to attribute others' achievements to good luck or easy tasks and their failures to not trying hard enough or not having the necessary personal characteristics
Gain sharing
Policy of giving employees a stubstantial portion of the cost savings produced when their jobs are improved.
Gain sharing plan
Program that establishes a historical base period of organizational performance, measures improvements, and shares the gains with employees on some formula basis. Also known as production sharing
Environmental factors that are established for the purpose of motivating a person.
Loose rates
Payment at rates that allow employees to reach standard output with less than normal effort.
Management By Objectives (MBO)
Process of jointly setting objectives, creating action plans, conducting periodic reviews, and engaging in annual performance evaluations to facilitate desired performance
Output restriction
Situation in which workers choose to produce less than they could produce with normal effort.
Perceptual set
People's tendency to perceive what they expect to perceive
Performance appraisal
Process of evaluating the performance of employees
Performance feedback
Timely provision of data or judgment regarding task-related results.
Piece rate
Reward system that pays employees according to the number of acceptable pieces produced
profit sharing
System that distributes to employees some portion of the profit of business
Rate setting
Process of determining the standard output for each job
Process of asking individuals to identify and assess their accomplishments, strengths, and weaknesses.
Self-fulfulling prophecy
Condition that exists when a manager's expectations for an employee will cause the manager to treat the employee differently, and the employee will respond in a way that confirms the initial expectation. Also known as the Pygmalion effect.
Self-serving bias
Tendency to claim undue credit for one's own s uccess and minimize personal responsiblity for problems
Skill-based pay
System that rewards individual employees for what they know how to do. Also known as knowledge-based pay or multiskill pay.
360-degree feedback
Process of systematically gathering data on a person's skills, abilities, and behaviors from a variety of sources-the manager, peers, subordinates, and even customers. Also known as multirater feedback or full-circle feedback.
Wage incentives
Reward systems that provide more pay for more production
Autocratic leaders
People who centralize power and decision-making authority in themselves
Leadership role in which a leader prepares, guides, facilitates, cheers, and directs the team but does not play the game
Conceptual skill
Ability to think in terms of models, frameworks, and broad relationships
Leader's employee orientation, which reflects concern about employees' human needs.
Consultative leaders
Managers who approach one or more employees and ask for inputs prior to making a decision
Contingency model
Model which states that the most appropriate leadership style depends on the favorableness of the situation, especially in relation to leader-member relations, task structure, and position power.
Decision-making model
Structured approach to selecting a leadership style, developed by Vroom and others, that encourages assessment of a variety of probelm attributes and matches the results of that analysis with one of the five leadership options
Development level
Task-specific combination of employee competence and motvation to perform that helps determine which lealdership style to use.
Enhancers for leadership
Elements that amplify a leader's impact on the employees.
Behaviors that help a person to be an effective subordinate to a leader
Human skill
Ability to work effectively with people and to build teamwork
Leader-member relations
Degree to which the leader is accepted by the group (a variable in Fiedler's contingency model of leadership)
Leader position power
Organizational power that goes with the position the leader occupies (a variable in Fiedler's contingency model of leadership)
Process of encouraging and helping others to work enthusiastically toward achieved objectives
Leadership style
Total pattern of a leader's philosophy, skill, traits, and attitutdes that is exhibited in the leader's behavior.
Locus of control
Belief about whether an employee's achievements are the product of the employee's efforts (internal) or outside forces (external).
Managerial grid
Framework of management styles based on the dimensions of concern for people and concern for production
Attributes of subordinates, tasks, organizations that interfere with or diminish a leader's attempts to influence employees.
Participative leaders
Leaders who decentralize authority by consulting with followers
Path-goal leadership
Model that states that the leader's job is to create a work environment through structure, support, and rewards that helps employees reach the organization's goals.
Psychological support
Condition in which leaders stimulate people to want to do a particular job.
Act of leading oneself to perform naturally motivating tasks and of managing oneself to do work that is required but not naturally rewarding
Self-perceived task ability
Degree of employee confidence in his or her potential to perform a task successfully.
Situational leadership model
Theory of leadership that suggests that a leader's style should be determined by matching it with the taks-related development (maturity) level of each subordinate.
Leader's task orientation that, at the extreme, ignores personal issues and emotions of employees.
Substitutes for leadership
Characteristics of the task, employees, or organization that may reduce the need for leadership behaviors.
Actively working to unleash the abilities of subordinates and encouraging them to become capable of self-leadership
Task Structure
Degree to which one specific method is required to do the job (a variable of Fiedler's contingency model of leadership
Task Support
Condition in which leaders provide the resources, budgets, power, and other elements that are essential in getting the job done
Technical Skill
Knowledge of and ability in any type of process or technique
physical, intellectual, or personality characteristics that differentiate between leaders and nonleaders or between succesful and unsuccessfuly leaders.
Willingness to accept the influence of others
Contingency factor in the path-goal model of leadership that suggests a leader's choice of style is partially dependent on an employee's readiness to accept direction from others.