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14 Cards in this Set

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Perception:

aprocess by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressionsin order to give meaning to their environment.

3 factors of perception

in situation, in perceiver, in the target

Attribution theory

anattempt to determine whether an individual's behavior is internally orexternally caused.

Internally

arethose we believe to be under the personal control of the individual.

Externally

whatwe imagine the situation forced the individual to do.

Fundamental attribution error:

thetendency to underestimate the influence of xternal factors and overestimate theinfluence of interla factors when making judgments about the behavior of others

Self serving bias:

thetendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to interal factorsand put the blame for failures on external factors

Selective perception

thetendency to selectively interpret what one sees on the basis of one'sinterests, background, experience, and attitudes

Halo effect

thetendency to draw a general impression about an individual on the basis of asingle characteristic

Contrast effect:

evaluation of a person's characteristics thatis affected by comparisons with other people recently ecountered who rankhigher or lower on the same characteristics

Stereotyping

judgingsomeone on the basis of ones perception of the group to which that personbelongs

Self fulfilling prophecy:

asituation in which a person inaccurately perceives a second person, and theresulting expectations cause the second person to behave in ways consistentwith the original perception

Problem:

adiscrepancy between the current state of affairs and some desired state

Rational:

characterizedby making consistent, value maximizing choices within specified constraints