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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
3 major organizational theories
1. systems
2. classical scientific management theory
3. Human Relation Theory
3 perspectives for understanding organizations
1. Cultural perspective
2. Economic perspective
3. Contingency perspective
systems theory is how all parts of
- how all parts of the organization (subsystems) are interrelated & function together to produce output
Systems theory has constant
- constant assessment & adjustment
Systems Theory
- organization is more than a sum of all parts
Systems Theory
- It is an intricate mechanism where parts work together to take resources (input) & process them into some kind of product or service (output)
Systems thoery
- importance of environment & impacts of other systems upon the organization is stressed
Systems theory
- more flexible than other theories
Systems Theory
- Irrational, Spontaneous interactions are expected
Classical Scientific Management Theories
- A Specfically designed, formal structure & a consistent, rigid organizational network of employees
Classical Scientific Management Theory
- Each employee has clearly defined task calling for minimal independent functioning
Classical Scientific Management Theory
- Supervisors closely scrutinize the worker's activities
Classical Scientific Management Theory
- Efficiency is paramount & performance is regulated and measured
Classical Scientific Management Theory
- Worker Morale is relatively insignificant
Classical Scientific Management Theory
-Administration discourages employee input regarding how organizational goals can best be reached
Classical Scientific ManagementTheory
- Employees are required to do hob as quietly & efficiently as possible
Classical Scientific Management Thoery
- Traditional bureaucracies operate according...
Human Relations Theory
- The role of informal, psychosocial components of organizational functioning on the grounds that satisfied, happy employees will be most productive
Human Relations Theory
- Concerned wtih employee morale and productivity, satisfaction, motivation, & leadership & the dynamics of small group behavior
Human Relations Theory
- Administration responsible for enhancing workers morale- capable adminstartors vital
Human Relations Theory
- The immediate work group (mezzo system)is crucial
Human Relations Theory
- Employees encouraged to work cooperatively together & participate in group decision making
Human Relations Theory
- Employers enocurage employee input concerning organizationl polices and practices
Cultural Perspective
- Assumes each organization develops a unique mixture of values, standards, presumptions, & practices about how things should be done that eventually become a habit
Cultural Perspective
- Management & others may not be consciously aware that such patterns & expectations have developed
Cultural Perspective
- Beocme ingrained in establishing means of accomplishing tasks & goals
Cultural Perspective
- "If it ain't broke, don't fix it"
Cultural Perspective
- Result is the establishment of an ideological structure that frames how organizational members think about the organization & how it should work
Cultural Perspective
- Tend to view new ideas by shaping them to conform to old tried & true practices
Economic Perspective
- How organizations should proceed in whatever way necessary to maximize profits or output
Adavantage to Cultural Perspective
- Performance becomes predictable, less effort to develop new approaches
Disadvantage to Cultural Perspective
- pressure to retain the old way of through, creativity lessened
Economic Perspective
Serious attention is paid to the relationships between inputs or investments & the resulting outputs or production
Economic Perspective
- Efficiency is paramount
Economic Perspective
- Emphasis is placed on evaluating processes & programs to determine which is the most cost effective, which produces the most results for the least money
Economic Perspective
- Frames transactions between management & employees = organization out to get as much as possible, so are employees - thus management must assume that employees are out for their own interests rather than the organziations
Economic Perspective
- somewhat resembles scientific managment thoery- however, stresses the examination of numerous alternatives to achieve the same end
- places difficulties for social workers who maintain professional values & ethics
- Places primary emphasis on profit & productivity
Contingency Perspective
- Maintains that each element involved in an organization depends on other elements: therefore there is not one general best way to accomplish tasks or goals
Advantage of Contingency Perspective
flexibility
Disadvantage of Contingency Perspective
Lack of direction
Nature of organizations
(agency settings)
- predominantly social work settings
- host settings
Lines of authority
- Formal structure depends on lines of authority
- specific adminstrative & supervisory responsibilities of supervisors for their supervisees
- policy usually dictates line of authority in writing
Channels of communication
All agencies have multipe networks of communication channels set up & governed by polciy &/or organizational chart
Channels of communication
infomral communications may not follow the chain of command
Dimensions of power
organizations have set up similar lines of power that are supposed to follow the lines of authority