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73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Costs to plants of herbivory?
Wasted energy: invested products of photosynthesis in lost body parts

Decreased ability for future energy gain

Increased risk of infection
Types of Defense in Plants
Physical and Chemical
Physical Defense in plants
Spines, thorns, prickles, trichomes
Constituitive defenses?
always present
induced defenses?
produced in response to damage
Define thorns
modified branches, develop from axillary buds
Define prickles
broad outgrowths of the stem
Define Trichomes
hairs that are outgrowths of the epidermal tissue of a leaf or stem
Bullhorn Acacia - what defenses do they use
large, hollow thorns in pairs, biting stinging ants live in them to protect the acacia from herbivores - mutualistic relationship
Define Alkaloids
Any of numerous nitrogen containing compounds that have ring structures - many very poinsonous to herbivores and humans - chemical defense
Alkaloids in human medicine
anti malarial drug
kills plasmodium
found in tonic water for british soldiers to drink in areas of the world where malaria is endemic
Alkaloids used by humans as stimulants
caffeine, cffee tree, chocolate pods, tea plants
Define Glycosides
Saponins produce soapy residue
Glycosids in medicine
poinsons insects and mammals that eat leaves or other parts of plants
used as a drug for patients with congestive heart failure - improves circulation, relieves fluid retentino, helps kidney function
Define Phenolics - Tannins.
present in almost all plants
concentrated in heartwood and bark
may interfere with digestive tracts of insect herbivores and may inhibit microbial growth
give flavor to tea and wine
Define Furanocoumarins
Chemical defense
some are photoactive and become toxins upon exposure to UV
can cause contact dermatitis
Define Resins
chemical defense in plants
produced by many plant species
some are toxins
poison oak, poison ivy, poison sumac
CNS disruptors - maijuana
female flowers and upper leaves produce a resin that binds to receptor cells in brain producing feelings of well being, decreases nausea, decreases glaucoma pressure
may stay in brain cells for many years
Similarities between animal and plant defenses
have physical and chemical adaptations and mutualistic associations
Physical Defenses in Animals
Hair, armor, blending in
Chemical Defenses in Animals
venom, poinson, noxious substances
First line of defense
Skin and internal barriers
Second Line of Defense
Innate immune funcions and inflammatory responses
Third Line of Defense
Acquired immunity - humoral immunie response and cell mediated immune response
Evolution of Immune System
Modern vertebrate immune system first arose in fish with jaws
invertebrate and vertebrate both had phagocytes and distinguising self from non self characteristics
3 layers of the skin
epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous
Digestive tract defense
saliva with immune and non immune components
acidic environment in stomach
Respiratory tract defense
mucosal layer bc of goblet cells
Innate Immunity Inflammatory Responses
Blood vessels interior to wound dilate so blood flow increases to get WBC's there to kill invading microbes
Fever as a defense
fever inhibits microbial growth but can also cause pathology because increased temp means loss of enzyme function
Cell mediated immune response
T cells activated when bind to antigens
cytokines secreted
stimulates production of cytotoxic t cells that multiply rapidly and destroy infection
Humoral Immune Response
B cells activated when they come in contact with foreign antigens
plasma cells release antibodies that bind parasites
Structure of Antibodies
Two short polypeptide chains
two identical long chains
Prokaryotic Reproduction
simple fission
Protist reproduction
Asexual and Sexual
Dictyostelium Discoideum life cycle
Aggregation - occurs when food supply exhaused or amoebae reach a certain density
Migration - plasmodium leaves aggregation site and may divide
Culmination - slug stops moving, forms cushion shaped structure with little papilla on top
Fruiting - celular mass is raised above the substrate as a result of its cohesiveness - fruiting body called sorcarp
What is double fertilization?
unique to angiosperms
one sperm nucleus enters egg
one sperm nucleus joins the two nuclei in central cell (3n) endosperm
tube nucleus degenerates
Characteristics of Polyploid Plants
larger cells and plants are usually larger
watermelons, marigolds, and smapdragons
What two ways can polyploidy take place if diploid gametes are formed?
gametes may be formed by mitosis instead of meiosis
plants, in contrast to animals, form germ cells (sperm and eggs) from somatic tissues
How does polyploidy occur naturally in certian plant tissues?
as endosperm develops it undergoes successive rounds of endoreplication
when rhizobium bacteria infect root they induce more endoreplication
Fungal Reproduction
have alternation of generations
predator of plants - forager if the food doesn't move
one organism eats the other by engulfing it
require dead organic material
get their nutirtion from living organisms, harming the host
get their nutrition from living organisms, both organisms benefit
one organism uses another for a living space, no intimate contact
host is not harmed or benefited
living together
which came first? Parasitism or mutualsim?
a good parasite does not kill its host
more than 90% of plants have it
fungus forms a sheath around the outside of the root - between the cells
mostly basidiomycota
fungus penetrates the plant cells
very heavily branched
called arbuscules
usually glomeromycota
Route of sugar in plant with mycorrhizae
Sugar transported as sucrose in plant then changes to another sugar in fungus so plant can't use the sugar and to keep the sucrose gradient
mutualistic relationship between a fungus and an alga or cyanobacteria
Where are lichens found?
grow in habitats that aren't very nice
deserts, arctic, antarctica, rock faces etc
Uses of lichens?
lichens break down rocks into soil
food source for caribou and reindeer
natural dyes, tweed
litmus paper
Types of Lichens
Crustose - flat and crusty
Foliose - leafy, but usually prostrate on the substrate
Furticose - usually upright or hanging, often bright color somewhere
Advantage for mycobiont (fungus) in lichens
fungus gains nutritionally from photobiont
carbon transfer between photobiont and fungus is rapid
Advantages for photobiont in lichens
gets a place to live with protection
can grow in area with less moisture without drying out
Endophytic Fungi
Fungi that live almost entirely within the leaves and stems of apparently healthy host plants
help plant
Nitrogen Fixation
Nitrogen is triple bonded in air
nitrogenase breaks down triple bond so it can go to ammonia
Mutualistic bacteria in plants
Key abiotic elements of an organisms environment are..
temp, ph, sunlight, moisture
Axes of thermoregulation
some organisms that generate their own heat (endotherms) some can keep body temp constant (homeotherms) some can allow temp to fluctuate (heterotherms) and some rely on heat from environment (ectotherms)
Behavior responses to abiotic change
animal will move into a less stressful environment
short distances
extensive movements
Physiological responses to abiotic changes
ectothermy, endothermy, lipid layers
morphology responses to abiotic changes
feathers and fur
Distributions of animals within populations
Random, uniform, and aggregated
Random - individuals are randomly spaced within a population
Uniform - uniform spacing within a population usually due to resource competition
aggregated - individuals clump together usually due to resource distribution
Study of factors that determine the size and structure of populations through time - birth, death, immigration, and emmigration
Survivorship Cruves
Type 1 - late suseptability - full life span
Type 2 - mortality unrelated to age
Type 3 - early susceptability
Density dependent survivorship factors
biotic interactions
What is the infection triad?
environment - temp, desiccation, pH, UV
host - condition, genetics, sex, age, behavior
parasite - condition, genetics, sex, age, behavior