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69 Cards in this Set

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What is the relationship between alpha and beta anomers of carbohydrates?
they are diasteromers; specific rotation cannot be determined from one another
What is an epimer?
aldose steroisomers that differ only about the configuration of one carbon
What is an anomer?
cyclic steroisomer that differs about the new chiral carbon that was formed during cyclic development
What occurs to hemiacetal rings when they are exposed to water?
they spontaneously open and then reform to the alpha or beta anomer; this is called mutarotation
Which anomer configuration is more favored?
the beta anomer is more favored because the hydroxyl is equatorial to the ring, instead of axial as it is in the alpha anomer
What will happen to a monosaccharide in the presence of acidic anhydride and base?
all of the alcohol side chains will be turned into ester groups
What does PCC do?
oxidizes alcohols to the keton
T/F: diastereomers can rotate plane polarized light
true
In the Woff Kishner reduction, reaction with NH2NH2 will form the intermediate ____ while addition of base will form the _____.
hydrazone (HC=NNH2); methyl (R group)
Which of the amines is most soluble in water?
the quaternary amine
The reaction of a nitrile with LiAlH4 will form:
an amine
T/F: the higher the MW, the higher the boiling point
true; the higher the MW, the harder it is to "push" that molecule into the gas phase
T/F: an anomer formed from an aldose will differ in the configuration about the first carbon.
true
Anomers that differ in the configuration about their second carbon are called:
epimers
Where are aminopeptidase and carboxypeptidase secreted from, respectively?
intestinal glands; pancreas
Galvanic cells have a ____ E value while electrolytic cells have a ______ E value.
positive; negative
The electrode in which electrons are flowing into undergoes (oxidation/reduction)?
reduction
A galvanic cell connects and powers a light bulb; the light bulb will continue to glow until:
the cell has reached equilibrium
What is a faraday?
the magnitude of charge of one mole of electrons.
Bromine with CCl4 is a common test for the presence of:
double bonds
The electric field points in the direction of a _____ charge.
positive
When light travels from a greater "n" to a lower "n," the refracted ray is bent away from the normal.
true
T/F: When light travels from a smaller "n" to a larger "n", the refracted ray is bent towards the normal.
true
How are beats produced?
from two overlapping waves with slightly different frequencies.
T/F: standing waves can be either transverse or longitudinal.
true
T/F: a node is a place where max vibration occurs.
false; a node is a place that exhibits no vibration, while an antinode is a place where max vibration occurs
T/F: an antinode is just part of the wave with max amplitude
true
The smallest frequency corresponding to a one loop pattern is f1. What is the frequency needed to establish a 3 loop pattern?
3f1
What is the harmonic number?
the number corresponds to the number of loops in the standing wave pattern.
What is the fundemental frequency?
it is the first frequency of a harmonic; the rest of the frequencies are called overtones
What is a standing wave?
a wave that does not travel in one direction or the other
How do standing waves arise?
because identical waves travel on the string in opposite directions and combine
A standing wave is established when the string is vibrated with a frequency of:
2*Length of string/wave speed
What is the natural frequency?
the frequency at which resonance occurs
What is the equation for the series of natural frequencies that lead to standing waves on a string fixed at both ends?
natural frequency = n(v/2L)
What is the natural frequency for a tube open at both ends?
n(v/2L)
What is the natural frequency for a tube open at only one end?
n(v/4L)
Does temperature change pitch?
yes
Does pressure change pitch?
no
According to the kinetic molecular theory of gases, pressure increases as volume decreases because:
the collision of gas particles with the cylinder increase in frequency.
How does one convert from molarity to normality and visa versa?
N = nM
M = N/n
A rocket takes off and dissociates as it ascends into space. What occurs to the initial and final momentum of the pieces?
momentum is conserved; vectors should cancel
The larger the binding energy, the _____ the nucleus.
more stable; tightly bound
The stronger the electrostatic force in teh nucleus, the _____ the binding energy.
weaker
What form of energy transfer can occur in a vacuum?
radiation
An object weight 180N on the earth's surface. How much does it weigh when it's distance from the earth's surface is tripled?
180/9 = 20N; Gm(e)m/r(squared) = mg; m is constant so g must be changing
In a magnetic field, if the direction of a particle points with the vector qv, then the charge must be ______.
positive
As a liquid begins to boil, what occurs to the vapor pressure?
increases; to keep pressure constant, volume must be increased to lower pressure increase
What are the four postulates of the kinetic molecular theory of gases?
1. gas particles are separated by distances must greater than their size
2. only totally elastic IF's occur
3. KE is directly proportional to temperature
4. gas particles are moving in a random fashion with various distribution of speeds
What does the Van der Waals equation account for?
the IF's and volumes of real gases
T/F: ideal gases never condense
true
At high pressures, real gases occupy volumes ____ than ideal gases.
larger
T/F: ideal gases interact
false
The higher the temperature, the more _____ a gas.
energetic; KE increases with T
Force * velocity is equal to:
power
When pH = pKa, then [HA] = ?
[A-]
T/F: for resistors and capacitors in parallel, the voltage across the resistor will equal the voltage across the capacitor
true
tertiary alkyl halides will form ______ in presence of strong base.
alkenes via E2
Will a tertiary or primary alcohol under condensation at a faster rate?
tertiary; more stable carbocation; condensation requires carbocation
What must be true fo a ketone if during enolate formation, it undergoes racemization?
the alpha carbon must be chiral
How can pressure be altered in a closed container in order to increase the rate at which ice will melt?
raising the pressure shifts the equilibrium towards the phase that is most dense (in this case, water is more dense than ice)
What does it mean for two species to be isoelectronic?
they have the same electron configuration
For a given exothermic reaction, how are enthalpy, Ea (forward) and Ea (reverse) related?
(change in enthalpy) + Ea (forward) = Ea (reverse)
T/F: volume, entropy, enthalpy, and work are all state functions.
false; work is not a state function because it is dependent on the path taken
What conditions does a real gas differ in behavior from an ideal gas?
low T and high P
What are the chalcogens?
the group directly left of the halogens
A buffer consists of a:
weak acid with it's conjugate base
In Hooke's law, "k" stands for:
the stiffness of the spring; as k increase, it becomes more difficult to compress or stretch the spring
Total mechanical energy is conserved if:
nonconservative forces do no work