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44 Cards in this Set

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What is the most abundant type of organic compound found in living things?
Proteins.
What are the monomers of a protein called?
Amino Acids
How many different kinds of amino acids are there.
20 different kinds.
What elements are proteins composed of?
Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen,and oxygen. Sometimes sulfur and phosphorus.
How can a protein be identified using its molecular formula?
Proteins contain the element nitrogen and other macromolecules don't.
What are the two major categories of amino acids?
Nonessential amino acids and Essential amino acids.
What are Nonessential amino acids?
Amino acids that the body can produce using the SPONCH elements.
What are Essential amino acids?
Amino acids that the body can not make, and must be obtained in the food we eat.
The number of essential amino acids varies from ___ in children to ___ in adults.
10- children
8- Adults
Essential amino acids are found in what kinds of proteins?
"Complete" Proteins
What are three examples of sources of "complete" proteins?
Eggs, milk and meat
Why must vegans be careful so that they obtain the necessary amino acids?
"complete" proteins are not found in vegetables.
What must vegans eat obtain all the Essential amino acids? Name examples.
Grains (rice and wheat)
Legumes (beans,soy, and peanuts) Beans and other legumes contain many but not all of the essential amino acids.
What is the basic structure of an amino acid?
H
H | O
\ | //
N ------------ C ---------- C
/ | \
H R OH
What are the parts of an amino acid?
-a central carbon atom bonded to:
1 carboxyl group
1 amino group
1 hydrogen atom
1 carbon side chain (symbolized by R)
How many different kinds of R groups are there? What is the result of that many R groups?
There are 20 different kinds of R groups. As a result there are 20 different kinds of amino acids.
There are __ different amino acids that can be linked together in ___ _____ and in chains of _______ ______
20
any sequence
varying length
What is a long chain of amino acids called?
A polypeptide
Animal cells may contain over ______ proteins. Some are unique for a given type of organism. Proteins make life possible in its present degree of ________
2000
complexity
What makes you, you?
You are the result of the proteins you produce.
What does a functional protein consist of?
One or more polypeptides
Each __________ is coded for by its own region of DNA known as a ____
polypeptide
gene
What are the levels of a protein (called levels of organization)
primary
secondary
tertiary
quaternary
Describe the primary level.
the order the amino acids are linked together
Describe the secondary level.
the bending and folding that results from the amino acid sequence
Describe the tertiary level.
additional bending and folding resulting from new interactions between amino acids that are now near each other
Describe the quaternary level.
several polypeptide chains combine to form a large 3 dimensional (glob -like) structure
What process is used to form proteins?
Dehydration Synthesis
What are the reactants and products of Dehydration synthesis of two amino acids?
Reactants: two amino acids
Products: a dipeptide and a water molecule
Where does the H and OH group come from during Dehydration Synthesis of two amino acids?
H: the amino group
OH: the carboxyl group
What does the word polypeptide literally mean?
poly: many
peptide: refers to amino acids
The________ properties of a particular protein depend on its _________ thus, the _____ of the protein determines the protein's __________ properties
chemical
structure
shape
biological
What are the 4 major categories of proteins?
1. Structural Protein
2. Enzymes
3.Hormones
4.Antibodies
What are structural proteins?
Examples?
the major "building blocks" of body tissue Examples: muscle,collagen,keratin.
What materials contain collagen?
Cartilage, tendon, the matrix of your skin, and bone
What materials contain keratin?
Rhino horn, bird feather, and hair
What are the three types of proteins are found within all cell membranes?
Channels, ID markers, and receptors
What are enzymes?
They are proteins that allow chemical reactions to take place in the body.
How do enzymes work?
They reduce cellular energy needed, thus speeding up the reactions (include those involved during metabolism)
What is metabolism?
Any and all chemical reactions necessary for sustaining life (ie: homeostasis-stable internal environment)
What are hormones?
chemical messengers that regulate body functions
What are antibodies?
Substances that protect against diseases
What is Hydrolysis?
The chemical process by which all macromolecules are broken down.
What does Hydrolysis literally mean?
hydro: water
lysis: to separate, to cut