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30 Cards in this Set

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Schrodinger N
Shell of electron orbital
Schrodinger L=0
s orbital
Schrodinger L=1
p orbital
Schrodinger L=2
d orbital
Schrodinger L=3
f orbital
Order of filling Schrodinger orbitals
1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d
Schrodinger m1
orbital in space (-1, 0 or 1)
Oxidation
loses electron
Reduction
Gains e-
Electronegativity
how strongly atttoms attract e-
Top right most electronegative, bottom left least
Ionic Bonds
Electroneg dif > 2.1

Mutual attraction of cation for several sourrounding anions or opposite

Atom forms cation by giving up one or more e- to atom(s) forming anion
Non-polar Covalent Bond
= electronegativities
Polar Covalent Bonds
Different electronegativity (significant dipoles)
Coordinate covalent bonds
Atom donates both e- for the shared pair and the other uses a vacant orbital for bonding

H..N+H3
Covalent Bonds
Nonmentals usually form the,

Dif of electroneg <1.7

Atoms share one or more pairs or e-

Alpha bonds are symmetrical about axis of rotation
How many covalent bonds formed from C, H, N, P, O, S and hologens? What if they have +1 charge?
C-4, H-1 N-3, P-3, O-2, S-2, halogens-1

If +1 charge then they form one more bond
Lewis dot structures for representative (A) groups
Given by group number of periodic table
Lewis Dot Structures for covalent molecules
Determine correct # of Ve- for each atom
if - charge add extra e-, if + take one away

Write symbols and form single bonds between them

put other e-'s as lone pairs

check to see that each atom has octet
if not use dbl or triple bonds
Resonance
2 or more lewis dot structures made by only moving electrong

Lower E structures are major
What Makes a Major Resonance Structure
All atoms have complete Octet

More bonds= more stability

No unnecessary seperation (causes high enery structures)

It is better to have a negative charge on a highly electronegative element like O than C

Dispersal of charge = higher stability
Formal Charge
FC= group # - nonbonding electrons - 1/2 shared electrons
Arrhenius Acid
Gives proton (H+)
Arrhenius Base
Gives up hydroxide
Arrhenius conjugates
Acids and bases neutralize each other to form conjugate base and acid
Bronsted-Lowry acid
gives up proton (H+)
Bronsted-Lowry Base
Accepts proton
Lewis Acid
Accepts electron pair to form covalent bond and have a positive charge (like H+ or hydronium) or have available vacant orbitals (BF3)
Lewis Base
Donates electron pair to form covalent bond and has a negative or neutral charge with lone pair(s) of electrons
Ka
([H3O+][A+])/[HA]
Acid Strength
The more elctronegative an anion, the more acidic (most acidic bottom right, least top left)
Stability of Acid increases down a
group

Dispersal of charge over a larger atom stabilizes anions

The more anion on a central atom the more acidic