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11 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Aldehydes are generally ______ reactive than ketones in nucleophilic addition rxns for both steric and electronic reasons
Sterically, the presence of only one large substituent bonded to the C=O carbon in an aldehyde versus two large substituents in a ketone means that ....

- Thus, the transition state leading to the tetrahedral intermediate .....
- a nucleophile is able to approach an aldehyde more readily

- is less crowded and lower in energyfor an aldehyde than for a ketone
Elecronically, aldehydes are more reactive than ketones because ?
of the greater polarization of aldehyde carbonyl groups
A primary carbocation is higher in energy and thus more reactive than the a secondary carbocation because ?
it has only one alkyl group inductively stabilizing the positive charge rather than two
An aldehyde is ________ electrophilic and _____ reactive than a ketone
- a bit more

- more
Aromatic aldehydes, such as benzaldehyde, are _______ _________ in nucleophilic addition reactions than aliphatic aldehydes.
are less reactive
The electron-donating resonance effect of the aromatic ring in a Aromatic aldehydes makes the carbonyl group less ......
less electrophilic than the carbonyl group of an aliphatic aldehyde
primary aldehyde (CC) is ..... than a secondary aldehyde (CC)
Less stable but more reactive
a secondary aldehyde (CC) is ......... a primary aldehyde (CC)
More stable but less reactive
Aromatic aldehydes, such as benaldehyde, are less reactive in ________________ than _____________.
- nucleophilic addition rxns

- aliphatic aldehydes
The electron donating resonance effect of the aromatic ring makes the carbonyl group less ...
electrophilic than the carbonyl group of an aliphatic aldehyde