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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
3 rules of major and minor resonance
1. maximize octet rule
2. minimize charge separation
3. make sure charge on appropriate atom.
molecules that are only made up of hydrogens and carbons
where all hydrocarbon are sp3 hybridized
London dispersion
Where a spontaneous induction of dipole occurs when two nonpolar molecules come together
What characteristics make higher BP in Alkanes
Longer chain
P surface area of molecule
Polycyclic alkanes
when 2 or more rings are connected together by sharing c-atoms
same molecular formula but different structure of molecule
constitutional isomer
same molecular formula but different connectivity of atoms
molecules that have same connectivity but different 3D spacial orientation
MESO Compound
has 2 or more SC that is superimposable through mirror image
polar protic examples
polar aprotic examples
Calculate delta H
bonds broken - bonds formed
solvent acting as a reagent
What is important about Nuc in an Sn1 reaction?
It does not affect the rxn rate, but it affects the product distribution.

Rember Nuc in Sn1 tends to be weaker
Why do you want a polar protic solvent for an Sn1 reaction?
This is because you want to stablize the carbocation. The leaving group will be surrounded by the polar protic sovent for a NUC to attack
What does E1 stand for?
unimolecular elimination
What does E1 usually need?
heat. E1 always associate with Sn1
What reactions can give racemic mixtures?
E1, radical halogination, Sn1
What are some mine characteristics of E2?
1. often occurs with Sn2
2.usually a big bulky base or strong base
3. occurs in a concerted rxn
4. must be antiperiplanar
5. usually when electrophile is hindered (branched)
6. high concentration of strong base
What makes a stronger acid?
stabilization due to resonance and electronegative halogens
Reducing agents
NaBH4, LAH. LAH is stronger and cannot be used with a polar protic solvent
How many steps does it take for a reduction rxn using LAH?
two. it is too reactive. reduce carboxylic acid and ethers
REaction of alcohol can attack where?
top and bottom thus making it a racemic mixture
Name 2 Grignurd Reagents
Li, Mg
Grignard function
1. Can create reduce an alkyl halide into an alkane.
2. add carbons to carbonyls to form alcohol.
3. create carboxylic acid with react with CO2
Never use Grignard reagent in this
in a polar protic solvent. it will react with polar protic solvent and be killed
Oxidizing reagents
K2Cr2O7, H2SO4, H20
CrO3, H3O+, (CrO3, H2SO4)

above will overoxidize primary alcohol

PCC no water oxidize 2ndary and primary

tertiary CANNOT be oxidized
For reaction of alcohol what is the major reaction for HX and H2SO4
high concen of HX yields SN1
H2SO4 w/ heat will give E1
Reagents to convert OH to halogens
PBr3 sn2 mech, get inversion
SOCl2 sn2 mech, no inversion
Williamson Ether synthesis
make alkoxide to attack alkyl halide

make sure it is primary or 2ndary

inversion can occur
How to make ether using sn1
use H2SO4 w/ heat. Then add MEOH
Epoxide rxn with acidic reagents
usually attack most hindered. protonate the Oxygen for a sn1 like reaction

can attack top and bottom
racemic mixture
Epoxide reaction with basic like reagents
Nuc attack less hindered. (sn2 inversion)
Markounikov rule
acidic H is added to least substituted carbon to create carbocation.

be aware there can still be shifts