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33 Cards in this Set

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hydrolytic enzymes
in lysosomes, digest/degrade protein
Lysosomes
break down unwanted polypeptides
cause autophagic cell death
acidic = pH=4.8
pumps H+ in and Cl- out
proteosomes
in lysosomes contain protease that digests proteins, "quality control"
cystic fibrosis
breakdown of Cl- transporters in lysosomes
ubiquitin
small proteins in EUK that mark proteins for destruction/proteolysis
Parkin
ligase protein that attaches w/ubiquitin to unwanted protein and takes them to protosomes for digestion
Parkinson's disease
mutation of ubiquitin and parkin system so toxins accumulate in cell
Hexoamidase A
breaks down fatty molecules in brain cells- if absent, fat accumulation and brain cells die (TAY SACHS)
Endocytosis
cell absorbs material from outside by engulfing w/membrane
phagocytosis
form of endocytosis wjere lg particles enveloped by cell membrane and internalized to phagosome (cell eating)
autophagocytosis
sequestering org/prot in vesicle in cell and deliver to lysosome (if too much around)-- to keep good balance
peroxisomes
rid cell of toxic substances, ex. catalase enzyme uses H202 to oxidise other substances
endoplasmic reticulum
protein highway in cytoplasm, near nucleus, how the nucleus sends molecules to cyto
free ribosomes
protein synthesis
Aging cells
secretory granules
pigment granules
neural fat
lipid droplets
Alpha-Synuclein
brain protein, aggregates to form insoluble fibrils in pathological conditions characterized by LEWY BODIES (ex. parkinsons, atrophy)
for apoptosis
BAX-rich inclusions
induce cell death, apoptosis
apoptosis
normal programmed cell death
orderly
phagocytes engulf ccell
necrosis
abnormal cell death
disorderly
from injury, infection, cancer, infarction, toxin, inflammation
release of intracellular contect causes inflammation
microtubules
cytoskeleton, for mitosis, cytokinesis, vesicle transport
microfilaments
structural protein-- actin filament
alpha/beta-tubulin
glomerlar, make up microtubules
actin
microfilament, mech support for cell, shape
myosin
motor protein, actin-based motility
chromatin
DNA+histones
1. nucleosome
2. 30nm condension
3. metaphase chromosome
nucleolus
assembles ribosomes
Cell renewal ( 3types)
1. high turnover/high regeneration (stem, blood,skin)
2. low turnover/high regeneration (liver, kidney)
3. low turnover/low regeneration (brain-- Parkinsons disease in SN will not replenish, heart)
hippocampus
neurogenesis , not post-mitotic cells so undergo cell division
Cell Cycle
M: Mitosis & cytokinesis (cytoplasm duplication)
Interphase: G1, S, G2
quiescent
temporary- cells that ceases division after G1 take temp break
mitosis
somatic cell division
1.prophase- consense
2. metaphase- align
3. anaphase- separate
4. telophase- 2 nuclei

(DNA replication+cytokinesis)
Meiosis
sex gamete/germ cell division
S phase:DNA replicated
4n Chromes
Reduction Division
Equatorial Division
1n Haploids
(meiosis I&II)
stem cells in ovaries can make more ova
p53
transcription factor that regulates cell cycle, tumor suppressor, acts between G1&S
defect--> tumorgenesis & excessive cell division