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98 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Organizational Structure
the framework for dividing, assigning and coordinating work
organization design
developments in or changes to the structure of an organization
work specialization
degree to which tasks in the organization are subdivided into separate jobs
departmentalization
the basis by which jobs are grouped together
types of departmenttalization
functional, geography, product, process, customer
chain of command
continous line of authority that extneds from upper levels of an organization to the lowest levels of the organization and clairifies who reports to who
authority
rights inherent in a managerial position to tell people what to do and to expect them to do it
responsibility
the obligation or expectation to perform
unity of commmand
concept that a person should have one boss and should report only to that person
line units
work groups that conduct the major business of the organization
staff units
assist the line units and provide specialized expertise and serivices
span of control
number of subordinates a manager can efficiently and effectively direct
centralization
degree to which decision making is concentrated at a single point in the organization
decentralization
degree to which desision making is spread throughout the organization
formalization
degree to which jobs within the organizations are standardized
more formalization =
more standardized/more rules and regs/less employee descression
less formalization =
more employee freedom
smaller companies =
(formalization)
centralized desicion making and low level of formation
mechanistic organization
larger of an organization, structure characterized by extensive departmentalization, high formalization, limited information network and centralization
Tall hieerarchy span of control
narrow control, not as many
Flat hierarchy span of control
wider, more people
organic model
structure that is flat, used cross hierarchial and cross function teams
low formalization
possess a comprehensive information network and relies on participative desisions
simple structure
low degree of departmentalization, wode spans of control, authority centralized in a single person and little formalization
beuracracy (max weber)
structure highly routine, operating tasks achieved through specialization
benefits of beuracracy
very organized and very efficient
matrix structure
structure that creates dual lines of authority and combines functional and product departmentalization
employees in matrix
conflicting duties and flexible organization
innovative strategy
strategy that emphasizes the intro of major new products and services
limitation strategy
seeks to move into new products or new markets only after their viability has already been proven
technoligy of organization
transformation, affect inputs and outputs more or less routine
Environment
forces outside the organization that potentially affect the organizations performance
Volatile
stable, easier to manage
complexity
simple
capacity
abundantm, has to do with environment within
decide your strategy then get your structure
the larger the organization the more mechanistic
culture
shared ways of thinking and doing things
properties of culture
shared by groups
organizations
transgenerational
learned not inherited
adoption
highly symbolic
multi-level construct
transgenerational
cumulative and passed from one generation to the next
means of adoptation
shares the members views of the worlds reactions/highly sympobolic
organizational culture
common perception held by the organizations members
dominant culture
expressed the core values that are shared by a majority of the organizations members
subcultures
minicultures within an organization, defined by department
core values
primary and dominant values that are accepted throughout the organization
strong culture
culture in which the core values are intensivesly held and widely shared/low turnover, hepls managers make desicisiona and committments
culture vs. formalization
strong culture increases behavioral consistency and can act as a substitute for formalization
organization culture vs. nature culture
national culture has a greater impact on emplyees than does their organizations culture
Strong vs. weak culture
size
age
intensity
employee turnover
culture function
defines the boundary between one organization and others
conveys a sense of identity for its members
facilitates generation
enhances stability of social system
serves as sense making and control mechanism
culture as a liability
barrier to change
barrier to diversity
barrier to acquisitions and mergers
cultures orginate
founder to top management then out to organization culture
institutionalization
when an organization takes on life of its own from any memebers
learning the culture
(transmitting)
through stories
rituals
material symbols
language
socialization
empoyees become adapted to culture
stages in socialization
prearrival
encounter
metamophosis-change people
characteristics in culture
innovation and risk taking
attention
outcome orientation
people orientation
team orientation
agressiveness
stability
who makes high ethical standards
top management
change
making things different
planned change
activites that are intentional and goal oriented
change agents
persons who act as a catalyzt and assume the responsibility for managing the change activities
goals of change
improving environment
improving group behavior
Forces
nature of the workforce
technology
economic
social tends
world politics
types of change agents
managers- internal
non managers- change guy
outside consultants-change implementation experts
Lewins 3 steps to change
unfreezing
changing
refreezing
unfreezing
break up power groups
changing
change it up
refreezing
put it back together and stabalize the change
Driving forces
pushing change
restraining forces
done want change
resistant to change
can be positive b/c it helps redeict behavior
road to cultural change
analyze culture
show that change is needed
appoint new ledership
Why people are resistant to change
threat to established recourse allocations
strucural inertia
limited focus of change
group inertia
treat to expertise
threat to estab power relationships
threat to establish resource alocations
Conflict to change
indiviudal
habit
security
organizational
threats
managers tactics
education and communication
negotiate
co-optation
manipulation
force
coesion
threats
outsider consultant
more objective, done have to ive with reprocussions willing to take more risk
changes
interest rates, stock, technologoy
action research
change process, systematically collects data
benefit of action research
focuses on the problem
sensitivity training
introducing diversity
process consultation
bring in consultants to see and understand process
apreciative inquirey
identify unique qualities and special strengths of an organization which can be built on to improve performance
Implicit and deferred change
loss of employee loyalty and motivation
increaed errors or mistakes
increaed absenteeism
Development techniques
survey feedback
sensitivity training
process consultation
team building
intergroup deveopment
Organizational development
collection of planed interventions
1) resprct for people
2) trust
3) power equality
4)confrontations
5)participation
Stress
dynamic coalition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraitn or demand related to what he or she desires for which the outcome is percieved to be both uncertain and immportant
Involved with
opportunity
demands
constraints
Constraints
forces that prevent individuals from dong what they desire
Demands
loss of something desired
Environmental factors in stress
uncertainty in business cycle
political systems
technology
terrorism
organizational factors
task demands
role demands
interpersonal demands
organizational strucure
organizational leadership
organizations life stage
individual factors
family and personal relationships
economic problems
personal problems
individual differences
perceptual variations
job expericne
social support
interal locust of control
self efficacy
consequences of stress
physiological
phycological
behavioral
physiological
headaches
blood pressure
phycological
anxiety
tension
boredom
dissatisfaction
bahavioral
absenteeism
eat less or more
changes in productivity
job turnover
inverted U
relationship between stress and job performance
Individual stress management
time management
physical exersize
relaxations
expand social network
organization approaches
improved personnel selection
training
realistic goad setting
redesign a job
increased employee envovlement
immproved organizational comunication
employee sabaticals