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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What driving forces has forced management to move to group model of operating
Competitive advantage - main reason
1) Deregulation
2) Global competitiveness
3) technological advances
4) drive to reduce costs
What are the types of groups
1) Formal
2) Informal
What are the characteristics of an informal group
1) 2 or more people interact with each other
2) common goal or interest
3) brought/come together voluntarily to accomplish an activity
What can be the affect of informal groups on an organisation
There are always informal groups in and org
if employee needs are met informal groups can help the org, if need not met they can be disruptive and cause polarization between management and workers
What are the characteristics of a formal group
1) 2 or more people
2) perscrided interaction patterns
3) share common interest or goal stated by organisation
4) formal assignment to a team - to achieve org goal, management aware of its existence
How can groups be classified in an organisation
1) command group - board of directors
2) task group - project group
Why do people join groups
Satisfies a personal need (Maslows) the more individual needs are satisfied the more important the group is to them, before people join group they will show group behavior.
What factors cause the formation of groups
1) Proximity - people in secretarial pool
2) physical attractiveness - joining gym in hope of meetings mate
3) attitudes similarity - political groups
4) Economic/social similarity - some people join golf club some join pitch and putt club (economic reasons)
5) Race and gender - womens
6) abilities - team sports
7) activities for group - darts club
8) goals of group - fund raising
How would you define group composition
those that make up the group, degree of similarity or difference between members. (homogeneous or heterogeneous)
If you descried a group an homogeneous what does this mean
The member of the group have similar qualities
If you descried a group as heterogeneous, what does this mean
The group members have differenct characteristics - a group containing engineers and HR people.....both would look at things from different perspectives
Why is it good to have a heterogeneous group
1) creates conflict
2) which can lead to increased problem solving, make the group more versatile and creative.
If you descried a group as being very cohesive; what does this mean
Cohesiveness is the outcome of group composition and consist of
1) attraction to the group of the members
2) high moral exhibited
3) strong coordination of member effort
How can managers cohesiveness
1) Match group task to employee characteristics
2) small groups more cohesiveness
3) match feedback with group success, feedback needs to be timely
4) Controlling and clarifying the group goal - clear goals lets members know where the group is going
5) establish a common enemy
What three conditions influence group performance
1) level of work group cohesiveness
2) the performance goals set by the group
3) the degree of agreement between group performance goals and organisational performance goals
What are the results for the organisation of having a cohesiveness group group
1) perfrom well if its goal conform to org goals
2) less absenteeism
3) group celebrates success and laments failure
4) members resist transfer
5) becomes homogeneous over time
What are work group norms
Norms are the groups expectation for the members concerning
1) level effort of members
2) agreement with and support group goals
(norms are a groups standards for behavior of it members)
What properties do norm exhibit
1) police and censure members behavior that does not conform
2) behavior counts not thoughts - members can privately disagree with groups course of action and still be a member in good standing
3) applies to effort levels and goals of group, not personal matters
4) Norms develop over time and resist change - traditions
5) Some group members have more right to deviate from norms then other - higher status members
What is group-think
Group think happens when conformity and cohesiveness rules the group, its decision making process becomes distorted and ineffective
What are the symptoms of group think
We're great
1) we can achieve anything - illusion of invulnerability
2) morality - we are moral and upright
3) negative stereotyping of opposition
We're blind
1) collective rationalization - not objective to warning signs - do not see indicators of things going wrong
2) Mind guards sift through and eliminate any negative external information
We're united
1) pressure applied to dissenters by mind guards
2) self censorship - member elect to be silent
3) illusion of unanimity - silence mean consent right?
How would you combat group-think
We're not great
1) assign role critical evaluator to members on a rotating basis
We're not blind
1) keep idea generating from idea evaluation, to bring objectivity and stop the influence of key members
2) use outside experts for guidance
3) set time to explore warning signs
We're not that united
1) use subgroups to arrive at decisions
2) second chance meetings - forum to express doubts
What two aspects of work group structures can affect group performance
1) positional status
2) Group size
What happens work group increase in size
1) Potential performance increase slightly logarithmically with size
2) Process losses increase (slightly) exponentially
3) Actual performance increase but mean actual performance per member decreases
How would you define potential performance
It is defined as the level of performance which could be achieved with the ideal combination of members skills abilities and work experience
How would you define process losses
are any obstacle to achieve potential performance i.,e groupthink, conflicts etc
Why does mean actual performance per member decrease when sizr increase
Because of coordination difficulties
What are the four stage of group development
1) Forming
2) Storming
3) Norming
4) Performing
What happens in forming stage of group development
1) Identify the behavior most important to the group
2) Assessment of member skills and abilities
3) Discuss goal of group
4) Assess degree of conmmitment and involvement
5) often in this stage some authority and leadership battle may take place before a leader is selected.
What happens in Storming stage
1) Interpersonal conflict can emerge becuase memebers are learning more about each other.
2) This stage can see the current leader being replaced
3)These are process losses in stage two (disagreements about goals, member abilities etc) if group can get beyond these it forms a basis for trust and corporation -- allot of group can get stuck in this stage
What happens in Norming stage
1) commitment to the group strengthens
2) Harmony and agreement
3) groupthink can set in at this stage
4) Group Norms are setup and adhered to
What happens in Performance stage
Actual Performance is close to potential performance.
1) Minimal process losses,
2) willingness of group to confront interpersonal and task/goal issues
3) member feel empowered, resolve conflict via collaboration and negotiation
Are group more willing to take risk then individuals
NO, groups accept risk based on
1) Group members
2) expectation of org risk
3) Leader risk orientation
4) Groups history of deviating form the group norm - risk involves change, norm may have to change
What three methods can be used to help groups make better decision
1) Brainstorming
2) Nominal Group Technique (NGT)
3) Delphi Technique (Rand Corporation)
What is the principle behind brainstorming and how does it work
Principle: separate idea generation from evaluation
Two separate stages
Idea generation, no evaluation allowed - time limit set for this
focus clearly defined
How does the Nominal Group Technique (NGT) work
Principal: minimizes group verbal interaction. separates generation for evaluation
1) Each member writes ideas for 5-10 mins
2) Leader ask each one to read out an idea
3) Ideas are then ranked
How does the Delphi Technique
Principle: group memebers not in contact with each or decided not to speak to each other
1) each member writes his ideas and send them to central person of consolidation
2) each team member gets a copy of results
3) team members are then allowed to comments on other ideas'
4) Repeat the process if necessary based on

Like all the techniques of decision making this eliminates the problem of having a dominant person running the show
What would the Delphi technique be good for
Virtual team decision making, each team member is in different global location
What most a manager do when managing teams
Look at
1) Task activities - how the team defines, plans and achieves the team aims
2) Maintenance activities - how to sustain the team member, satisfaction and well being
How can manager reduce process losses
1) careful define the task
2) develop norm for separate idea generation from evaluation - helps with decision making
3) monitor process losses - groupthink, conflict coordination issues
4) Make team and merit based rewards available
What three interaction requirements if fulfilled make effective inter-group network
1) INterdependence - the frequency and quality of interaction among groups - this most be carefully coordinated if task is complex and uncertain
2) Information flow - the amount quality and timing needed to make joint decisions
3) Interaction - the extent of collaboration and cooperation and structural unification need to achieve the common goal
What way can you improve decision making for inter-group activities
1) Have rules and regulations - not good for complex task requiring creativity
2) Member exchange
3) Linking role - person oversee s and coordinate work between two groups
4) Task-force - used as linking role
5) Decoupling -