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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Walls of the orbit
Frontal and lesser wing of sphenoid

Maxilla, zygomatic and palatine

ethmoid, frontal, lacrimal, sphenoid

Zygomatic, greater wing of sphenoid
Lacrimal caruncle
Fleshy, yellowish mass in medial canthus that contains modified sweat and oil (sebaceous) glands
Circular pigmented muscular structure that regulates the amount of light entering the eye
What muscles do most orbital blowout fractures involve?
Inferior oblique or rectus muscles
Optic canal contents
Optic nerve and opthalmic artery run through

In lesser wing of sphenoid bone
Superior orbital fissure
CN III, IV, V1, VI (Occulomotor, Trochlear, Opthalmic division of Trigeminal, Abducens)
Opthalmic veins
Common tendinous ring
Inferior orbital fissure
Infraorbital nerve (CN V2 branch), infraorbital artery and vein
Inside common tendinous ring
CN II, CN III, CN VI (Optic, Occulomotor, Abducens)
Opthalmic artery (travels with optic nerve)
Nasociliary nerve (CN V1)
Outside common tentinous ring
Frontal and lacrimal nerves (CN V1)
CN IV (Trochlear)
Opthalmic veins
Makeup of orbital septum.
Fascia of tarsal plates, continuous with periorbita
Origin of inferior tarsal muscle
Originates from inferior rectus muscle
Superior tarsal muscle
O: Levator palpebrae superioris
I: Superior tarsus
A: Assists in elevation of upper lid
Tarsal gland purpose
Modified sebaceous gland
- Lipid secretion (sebum)
- Lubricates edges of eyelids and prevents them from sticking togehter
- Forms a barrier to lacrimal fluid (tears)
- Increases tear viscosity and decreases evaporation from eyeball surface
Ciliary glands
Sebaceous gland of Zeis
Apocrine sweat gland of Moll
Insertion of Levator palpebrae superioris
Inserts into skin of upper lid
Name of lining of inner eyelid?
Papebral conjuctiva
name of lining of inner eye?
Bulbar conjunctiva
Extension of bulbar conjuctiva
From fornices to corneoscleral junction
Fornix superior and inferior
Reflections of palebral and bulbar conjunctiva, represent at potential space
Sensory Innervation of conjuctiva
Upper Palpebral from V1, Lower from V2

Bulbar from V1
palpebral ligament function
hold the tarsus in place, attach to wall of orbit
Tenon's capsule
Thin fascia that envelopes eye just over dural part of optic nerve
Extends from the optic nerve to the corneoscleral junction
Perforated by tendons of extraoccular muscles
Continuous with deep fascia of EOM
Medial and lateral check ligaments
Expansions of fascial sheaths of the horizontal recti. They limit movement of these muscles by attaching to the bony orbit.
Suspensory ligament (lockwood) of the eye
Fascial sheaths of the inferior oblique and inferior rectus muscles. Continuous with Tenon's capsule and attach to check ligaments forming a fascial hammock below the eye
Flow of tears
Lacrimal gland
Excretory ducts in superior conjucteval fornix
Bulbar conjunctiva and over cornea
Lacrimal lake (medial canthus)
Lacrimal puncta in medial edges of eyelids
Lacrimal canaliculi
Lacrimal sac
Naso lacrimal duct
Inferior nasal meatus (nasal cavity)
Describe the innervation of the lacrimal gland
Sympathetic (to vasculature of gland)
From SCG along internal carotid artery, into deep petrosal nerve (post ganglionic) through nerve of pterygoid canal, through pterygopalatine ganglion (no synapse), along maxillary nerve, along branch of zygomatico temporal nerve, along lacrimal nerve, to gland

Parasympathetic (secretomotor)
From CN7 (preganglionic) along greter petrosal nerve through nerve of pterygoid canal, into pterygopalatine ganglia, synapse here, up along maxillary nerve, along zygomaticotemporal nerve, along lacrimal gland to lacrimal gland.

Sensory (to capsule of gland, upper eyelid and bulbar and upper palpebral conjunctiva)
From lacrimal nerve from Trigeminal opthalmic division
Innervation of Extrinsic (Extraoccular) Eye muscles
Origin of extrinsic eye muscles

Insertion of extrinsic eye muscles
All rectus = Common tendinous ring (anulus of Zinn)

SO = Sphenoid bone (posterior roof of orbit)

IO = Maxilla (anterior floor of orbit)

All insert into sclera of eye
Order of spiral of Tillaux
Four rectus muscles
Medial, inferior, lateral, superior
Angle between rectus muscles and direction of gaze to infinity
23 degrees
Action of eye and muscles involved
Medial rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus

Inferior oblique
Superior oblique
Lateral rectus

Inferior oblique
Superior rectus

Superior oblique
Inferior rectus

Medial rotators (Intorsion)
Superior Rectus
Superior Oblique

Lateral rotators (Extorsion)
Inferior Rectus
Inferior Oblique
Divisions of occulomotor nerv
Superior branch
Levator palpebrae superioris
Superior rectus

Inferior branch
Inferior rectus
Medial rectus
Ciliary ganglion
Inferior oblique
Divisions of Opthamic nerve (V1)
Lacrimal- sensory to capsule of lacrimal gland

Frontal- Supraorbital and supratrochlear

Nasociliary (crosses CN 2 in orbit)
- Ethmoidal (A) -> supplies nasal cavity, ends as external nasal nerve
(P) -> supplies sphenoidal sinus
-Long ciliary nerves (to eye)
-Nasociliary (sensory) root of ciliary ganglion
Nasociliary nerve actions
Sensory (nasociliary) root to ciliary ganglion: sensory to eyeball (fibers pass through ganglion and via short ciliary nerves to eye)
Sensory fibers via long ciliary nerves: to eyeball
Sympathetic (postganglionic) fibers: pupillary dialator
Branches of opthalmic artery
Ethmiodal arteries (anterior and posterior)
Supratrochlear artery
Supraorbital artery
Lacrimal artery (gives rise to anterior ciliary, zygomaticofacial, zygomatico temporal artery and connects to middle meningeal artery)
Posterior ciliary artery
Central retinal artery (ONLY blood supply to internal retina)
Origin of infratrochlear nerve
branch of nasociliary nerve V1
Dorsal nasal artery
runs with infratrochlear nerve, terminal branch of opthalmic artery, anastamoses with facial artery.
Origin of infraorbital nerve and artery
Branch of maxillary nerve (V2), branch of maxillary artery anastomoses with facial artery
Veins draining the eye
Superior and inferior opthalmic veins (how stuff gets into the brain as they anastamose with pterygoid plexus)
Nerves affected by ICA aneurysm
CN VI (LR muscle)
CN III, IV, V1, V2
Definition of horner's syndrome
interruption of sympathetic innervation to head and neck
Clinical signs of horners syndrome and reason for them
Ptosis- drooping of eyelids
(paralysis of tarsal mm, esp. superior tarsal muslce)

Pupillary constriction
(paralysis of pupillary dialator muscle)

Enophthalmos - sinking of eye into orbit
(paralysis of orbitalis muscle in floor of orbit over inferior orbital fissure)

Vasodilatation and anhydrosis-lack of sweating on face and neck

Heterochromia- two collored eyes (under sympathetic control in development)

Absence of horizontal eyelid fold or crease