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180 Cards in this Set

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What are some advantages to digital radiography over radio graphic films?
Higher radiation sensitivity, Image enhancement possibilities, Reusable,Large reduction in radiation dose, patient education, Patient WOW factor (gay), Increase office efficiency, If you want a paperless office you need digital, Short exposure time, no darkroom needed, ect.... you get the point

Disadvantages: More initial expense
What other things are needed to have digital imaging in you office?
Software and Computer, Analog to digital conversion, Monitor, Printer, and Sensor plates
In a digital image, in microns, what is the pixel variation?
20-70 microns
(higher/Lower) the pixels = (Higher/Lower) the cost = (Higher/Lower) the Resolution
Higher pixel count = higher cost = higher resolution

Lower = lower
At each pixel, x-ray absorption generates a small ________?
voltage
In digital imaging Analogue data has to be converted to?
Digital (numerical data); ADC
A small range of voltage values are grouped together in a single value is known as?
Sampling
When every sample is assigned a value this is known as?
Quantization
In digital imaging, Voltage is measured and assigned a number which ranges from ______ -______? Which of the numbers refers to the images Blackness and which is related to the whiteness (remember that is not the same as Light!)
0 - 255 Volts

The closer to "0" the blacker
The closer to 255 the whiter
which of the following is not a current (recent) bit for contrast resolution?
A. 6 bit
B. 8 bit
C. 10 bit
D. 12 bit
E. 16 bit
A. 6 bit
T or F:
Because Current resolution can take place at 8 bit, 10 bit, 12 bit, and 16 bit, A digital system can capture 256 -65,536 different densities
True
In a 12 bit system how many different shades of gray can be captured?
4096
How many shades of gray can a person see with the naked eye?
60
The measure of small objects placed together; also the measure of fine detail is known as
Resolution
The naked human eye could potentially seperate ____-_____ thin line pairs per mm?
6 - 10
Correspond the following:
Film = _____ A. 8-10 lp/mm
CCD/ CMOS = ___ B. 16-20 lp/mm
PSP = ____ C. 6-8 lp/mm
Film = B. 16-20 lp/mm
CCD/CMOS = 8-10 lp/mm
PSP = C. 6-8 lp/mm
T or F:
Digitlal sensors can be retrofitted to older panoramic units
True
CCD stands for
Charged couple device
CMOS stands for
Complimentary metal oxide semiconductors
PSP stands for
Photostimulable phosphor plates
Which of the following active imaging area may be smaller than the actual size of the detector?
A. CCD
B. CMOS
C. PSP
D. A and B
E. All of the above
D. A and B CCD/CMOS
What % less exposure do you get out of using either CCD/CMOS vs Film
50-90%
Which sensors are approximately any where from 2.2 - 8 mm with rounded edges?
CCD/CMOS
Which of the following is not an example of a characteristic of CCD/CMOS sensors?
A. Has a wire
B. 50-90% less exposure than film
C. Cost 5000-12000 each
D. Can be autoclaved
E. Use plastic barriers
D. Can be autoclaved
T or F:
The PSP sensor is noted by the ADA as the best sensor on the market
F
Which of the following contains silicon crystals that are arranged in a pixel; Greater the exposure the higher the number of electron-hole pairs?
A. PSP
B. CCD
C. CMOS
D. Both B and C
E. All of the Above
B. CCD
In a digital system what must occur before the image is read?
Sampling and quantization
What is the purpose of the layer of scintillating material that is directly coated on the CCD surface or coupled to the surface by fiberoptics?
To increase x-ray absorption and efficiency
Which sensor contains a layer of scintillating material that is directly coated on the surface to increase x-ray absorption?
CCD
Which sensor uses electron-holes that are produced and the charge is transfoerred to the transistor directly as a small voltage which then the voltage is read by a frame grabber and then stored and displayed as digital gray value
CMOS
What company produced the first direct digital imaging with wireless capabilities?
Schick
Out of the following which is a wireless system?
A. CDC
B. CMOS
C. PSP
D. A and B
E. B and C
C. PSP
T or F:
The PSP Plates are more flexible than direct sensors
True
Which of the following sensors captures an analog latent image, which is subsequently digitized during the scanning process?
A. CDC
B. CMOS
C. PSP
D. A and B
E. None of the above
C. PSP
Which sensor uses Europium-doped barium flourohalide (Barium, iodine, chlorine or bromine)
PSP
In the PSP system elctrons are trapped in what state?
Metastable
Which sensor is layeredin gadolinium oxybromide or cesium iodide
CCD
T or F
In the PSP Plate using system the (voltage) of trapped electrons is proportional to x-ray (exposure) and represent a latent image
F; Number of trapped electrons is proportional to xray exposure and represent a latent image
PSP plates are scanned with a red laser light scanner which has a wavelength of ?
600 nm
The green spectrum that the energy is released in is what wavelenth?
300-500 nm
T or F
Light from PSP is conducted to photomultiplier tube via fiberoptics
True
What is the function of the photomultiplier tube in the PSP system
to convert light into electrical energy
T or F
A red filter at the photomultiplier tube selectively removes the stimulating (green light) and only the (red) light is detected and is converted to a varing voltage?
F; switched it filters the red light and the green light is detected
How long can exposed PSP's be stored for and still retain acceptable image quality?
12-24 hours
T or F
The scanning process as well as routine clinical handling of the PSP plates can introduce artifacts to the image
T
T or F

PSP plates are very resilient to damage
F; They can be damaged by rough handling, heat, and prolonged exposure to bright light
T or F
Laser scanning of PSP plates (completely) erases the latent image.
F; Laser scanning of PSP plates does not completely erase the latent image
The life expectancy of PSP plates is rated for how many scans?
1000; but is generally much less than that
Which of the following is not a stationary plate scanning system?
A. Digora
B. Sordex
C. Denopticx
D. Air Techniques
E. All of the above are stationary
C. Denopticx

The following are stationary
Digora, Sordex, Air techniques, Scan X
which of the following is Rotating Plate Scanning system?
A. Denopticx
B. Gendex
C. Digora
D. Orex
E. A, B, and D
E
The following are rotating systems
Denopticx, Gendex, Orex, Paxorama xi
To erase and reuse the PSP, it must be exposed to bight light to eliminate the ghost image. How long should it be exposed
1-2 minutes
What is the Scan time for the ScanX PSP system?
17 seconds; 4 seconds for every additional plates
What is the scan time for the ScanX PSP Pano?
25 secondsa
What is the scan time for ScanX PSP cephs?
32 seconds
What is the time it takes to erase ScanX PSP plates to white light?
35 seconds
In which system is the PSP automatically read and erased and ready for re-use in as little as 4 seconds
Digora
List disadvantages to the PSP imaging?
No significatnt time savings
Can be prone to artifacts
Possibility of transfer of contaminated material to patients mouth if the integrity of the plates
protective evelope is jeopardized
Ambient light can degrade the image
Inability to distinguish reversed image mounting
Scan time 2-5 minutes
What is the average scan time for a PSP system?
2-5 minutes
When switching to a digital office what is the ideal Kvp needed for x-ray equipment?
60-70 kvp
Which sensors are preferably used with DC type intraoral machines with 1/100 sec exposure intervals for the shorter exporsure times?
CMOS and CCD
X-ray generator to be used with a solid state detector should have which of the following characteristics?
A. 70 Kvp or less
B. 5 mA or less
C. An acurate timers
D. Small focal spot
E. A DC Circuit
F. Timer capable of producing very short exposure times accurately


A. A, B, C, and F
B. A, and B only
C. A, B, D, and E
D. A, B, and F
E. All of the choices are correct
E. All of the choices are correct
How can digital images be viewed?
through a monitor, printed hard copy on smooth glossy paper
T or F
Digital imaging can enhance clinical care by allowing the images to be altered without making another exposure
True
When two images of the same area taken at different intervals is required this is known as ?
Digital subtraction
During image compression which method is associated with discarded none of the image data?
Lossless method
The average digital image size is ?
200-400 KB = .2-.4 MB
The average size of FMX in digital is ?
8 MB
The averages size of Panoramic image digital is ?
5-6 MB
The average size of Ceph digital is?
6-8 MB
What are some of the legal implications associated with digital x-rays?
Image fraud
An altered image can only be saved as a copy or is clearly labeled
Invisible ID or Digital watermarking
In extraoral radiography the image receptor sizes correspond to each?
Match the following

Skull film = ____ A. 8-10 inch
Panoramic = ____ B. 5 -7 inch
Lateral Oblique = __ C. 15- 30 cm
Skull film = 8 -10 inch

Pano = 15- 30 cm

Lateral oblique view of mandible = 5-7 inch
What are some of the rare earth elements used in intensifying screens (phosphors)?
Gadolinium (green ) and Yttrium (Blue)
What color of emmission is seen by intensifying screens?
Green and Blue
intensifying screen made of Calcium tungstate has an effective dose in a single panoramic film of how many uSv?
14 uSv
Which type of intensifying screens have less radiation dose?
Rare earth intensifying screens
The effective dose of a ingle panoramic film of a rare earth intensifying screen is how many uSv?
7 uSv
The effective dose for PA is how many uSv?
7-17 uSv
T or F

A requirement for extraoral radiography is the means of fixing the tube head in a standardized position in order to device a reproducible head positioning
True
In radiographic planes; The plane that runs from the superior border of the external auditory meatus to the infraorbial orbital rim is the ______________?
Frankfort Plane
The plane that runs from the center point of the external auditory meatus to the outer canthus of the eye is the ?
Canthomeatal line or tragocanthal line
The tragocanthal line forms what degree of angle with the frankfort plane?
10 degree angle
What type of radiographs are used for techniques employing oriented radiographs for purpose of making head measurement, which can be used for the following; Study of craniofacial growth
diagnosis
orthodontic treatment planning
evaluation of treated cases
Cephalometrics
The distance from the source to the midcoronal plane of the patient should be? (ina ceph)
60 inches or 152.4 cm (remember she is probably more comfortable with the metric system the dang foreigner!)
Waters' Projection is better known as?
Occipitomental view or Maxillary sinus survey
In the Waters' Projection the chin is raised to elevate the canthomeatal line _____' degrees above the horizontal plane?
37 degrees
In Caldwell projections The tube is directed at ___ degrrees caudal to the canthomeatal line, and exits the glabella
23 degrees not that it is caudal to the canthomeatal line
In the Towne's view the Canthomeatal line is oriented _____ degrees downwards?
30 degrees
Mandibular Lateral Oblique Projection is also called?
Lateral Jaw Radiography
In a mandibular body projection the long axis of the head is tilted toward the side being examined at about what degree?
15' degrees
What are some types of intraoral images?
1. PA
2. Bitewing
3. Occlusal
How many images or films consists of a full mouth series?
18-24
In which film image can you see the full length of the tooth?
A. PA
B. Bitewing
C. Occlusal
D. A and B
E all of the above
A. PA
What is important to keep in mind when taking a PA?
To make sure that the interproximal contacts should be open. (no overlap)
What are the uses of the bitewing image?
Evaluation of crowns and interproximal tooth surfaces of both arches
Evaluation of interproximal crestal alveolar bone level
What is an imaginary beam of x-rays traveling directly though the center of the cone or beam indicating device?
Central Ray (CR)
XCP stands for?
Extension cone paralleling
an XCP consists of which of the following?
A. Anterior bite blocks
B. Posterior bite blocks
C. Indicator rod
D. Aiming ring
E. All of the above
E. All of the above
T or F
The BID is aligned precisely with the XCP ring and the metal rod in both the horizontal and vertical direction
True
T or F
The XCP can be steam autoclaved
true
Which of the following is an advantage of a film holder?
A. Facilitates film retention
B. Relates film to x-ray beam
C. May collimate the beam
D. Reduces the x-ray dose to the patient
E. All of the above
E. All of the above
List the appropriate head positioning for intraoral radiographs
Upright patient position
Mid-sagittal plane perpendicular to the floor
Occlusal plane or ala-tragus line paralllel to the floor
T or F
The Ala-Tragus line parallels the tips of the mandibular teeth from the canine to the third molar
False; The ala-tragus line parallels the tips of the maxillary teeth from the canine to the third molar
T or F
In the Maxilla all of the teeth are tilted lingually
False: facially
T or F
In the mandible the
Anterior teeth are tilted Facially...
The premolars are vertical...
Molars have lingual inclination....
All are true statements
T or F
Under angulation of the BID can result in foreshortening of the structures x-rayed
False Over angulation
T or F
Under angulation of the BID can result in elongation of structures
True
T or F
Faulty horizontal angulation can result in overlapped contacts and structures
True
T or F
An error in the point of entry of the CR-Xray beam can result in a cone cut or BID cut or a partial image
True
Name two possible reasons why a partial image may appear?
1. wrong point of entry (improper film coverage
2. Improper XCP assembly
Out of the two intraoral techniques which is most commonly preferred?

Whats the name of the other technique?
Paralleling

Bisecting angle
Why is paralleling technique preferred?
Better anatomic detail; minimizes unsharpness, magnification, and shape distortion
In latent image formation the film emulsion consists of photosensitive and radiosensitve silver halide grains which primarily consists of ________ and small amounts of ________
Silver bromide, Silver iodide
T or F
Emulsion does not change during exposure and film processing
False, It does change
When x-ray photons interact with silver halide crystals they release what?
photoelectrons
What type of compounds create senstivity sites on Ag Halide crystals?
Sulfur compounds
What do sensitivity sites on Ag Halide crystals do?
The sites trap electrons
Sites on a Ag Halide Crystal that conain neutral silver atoms are called?
Latent image sites
T or F
Each Ag Halide crystal contains a single sensitivity site
False contains multiple
T or F
Sensitivity sites start latent image formation
True
List the steps of processing that occurs for automatic pocessing? and in the correct order?
A. Developing-fixing-washing-drying
B. Fixing-Developing-washing-drying
C.Wetting-Developing-rinsing-fixation-washing-drying
D.Wetting-developing-fixing-rinsing-washing-drying
E. None of the above are correct
A.
List the Processing steps for Manual processing and in the correct order?
A. Developing-fixing-washing-drying
B. Fixing-Developing-washing-drying
C.Wetting-Developing-rinsing-fixation-washing-drying
D.Wetting-developing-fixing-rinsing-washing-drying
E. None of the above are correct
C
What is the primary funciton of the of the developer?
A. Conversion of exposed silver halide into metallic silver atoms
B. Redues silver ions in the exposed silver halide crystals to metallic silver grains
C. Provides electrons to reduce the oxidized phenidone to original active state
D. Produces an image with the appropriate contrast
E. A and B
E. A and B
Which reducing agent is the first electron donor?
Phenidone
Which reducing agent provides electrons to reduce the oxidized phenidone to origninal active state?
Hydoquinone
What is the function of Phenidone?
It is the 1st electron donor
Converts Ag ions into black metallic silver atoms at the latent image site
Brings out image quickly
What is the funciton of Hydroquinone?
Slowly build up gray, white , and black tones or produces an image with appropriate contrast
What is the funciton of the the buffer? and what is commonly used as a buffer?
They are used to maintain alkaline pH values. Sodium Carbonate
When discussing processing film; What are Activators and name one?
They are alkali compounds; Sodium or potassium hydrozide
In processing antioxidants are used. What is the function and namea common compound that acts as an antioxidant?
Prevents rapid oxidation of developing agent by atmospheric oxygen, extends the useful life, and removes oxidation products that may interfere wit hthe dveloping reaction and stain the film..commonly used is Sodium Sulfite
When processing film what is the purpose of the restrainer? name one
They restrain development of unexposed Ag Halide crystals, Prevents chemical FOG!!!
Potassium or Sodium Bromide
What is the function of the Fixer? name a fixing agent commonly used
Removal of unexposed or undeveloped silver halide crystals and to harden and shrink the film emulsion

Ammonium thiosulfate
What is the funciton of Acidifier?
Promote diffusion of Ammonium thiosulfate into emulsion
What is the purpose of a preservative during the processing of films?
Keep chemical balance
Prevents oxidation of thiosulfate clearing agent
prevents oxidized developer from staining the film
What is the function of the Hardener? What are they?
Hardens emulsion during fixing
Deduces swelling of emulsion during final wash
Aluminum Salts!!
Prolonged development can result in?
A. More radiolucent radiographs
B. More radio opaque Radiographs
C. Both A and B depending on the developer
D. Neither A or B; B/c the time doesn't effect the development
B radio opaque
Excessive fixation can result in?
A. More radiolucent radiographs
B. More radio opaque Radiographs
C. Both A and B depending on the developer
D. Neither A or B; B/c the time doesn't effect the development
A. Radio lucent
which of the following is a reducing agent?
A. Hydroquinone
B. Ammonium Salts
C. Phenidone
D. Potassium hydrozide
E. Both A and C
E. Both A and C
Which of the following is used as a Buffer?
A. Sodium Hydrozide
B. Sodium Carbonate
C. Ammonium Salts
D. Potassium Bromide
E. A and B
B. Sodium Carbonate
Which of the following is a common hardener?
A. Sodium Hydrozide
B. Sodium Carbonate
C. Ammonium Salts
D. Potassium Bromide
E. A and B
C. Ammonium Salts
Which of the following is a common Restrainer?
A. Sodium Hydrozide
B. Sodium Carbonate
C. Ammonium Salts
D. Potassium Bromide
E. A and B
D. Potassium Bromide ; could have been sodium bromide
What aids in removal of all residual processing chemicals that may obscure the diagnostic information in the final image?
Washing
Washing efficiency declines rapidly when the water temperature falls below?
A. 90' F
B. 76' F
C. 60' F
D. 120' C
E. 50' C
C. 60' F
What can lead to brown stains on film?
A. Improper washing
B. Over fixing
C. Long exposure to hardeners
D. Exposure to ambient light
E. None of the above will lead to discoloration
A.improper washing
normal sized white marks that can be seen on an image can be attributed to?
A. Air bubbles
B. Exposure to ambient light
C. Fixer contamination
D. Over washing
E. All of the above
C. Fixer contamination
Smaller white spots found on an image after processing can be the result of?
A. Air bubbles
B. Exposure to ambient light
C. Fixer contamination
D. Over washing
E. All of the above
A. Air bubbles
Removes moisture from film and prepares it for viewing?
Drying
What can result in distortion of gelatin and thus variations in density may be seen?
A. Improper washing
B. Uneven drying
C. Over exposure to fixer
D. Under exposure to developer
E. None of the above
B. uneven drying
What regulates the solution temperature during manual processing? And what is the desired temperature
The water supply regulates the solution temp. The desired temp is 60 - 75' F
T or F
Manual processing steps get longer in time as you get closer to the end
True
Wetting - 30 secs
Developing - 5 min
Water rinsing - 30 secs
Fixation - 10 min
Washing 10-15 min
Drying 30 min
Which of the following is a reason that 70 degrees is recommended for processing?
A. Fog is minimal at this temp
B. Contrast and Density are acceptable
C. Optical quality radiographs obtained
D. Processing time is practical
E. All of the above
E. All of the above
Of the Chimicals used in automatic processing which is Alkaline and feels soapy?
Developer
Of the chemicals used in automatic processing which is Acidic and has a sharp smell?
Fixer
What are added to the developer in automatic processing?
A. Hardeners
B. Fixers
C. preservatives
D. Acidifiers
E. None of the above
A. Hardeners are added to the developer; usually gluteraldehyde
In automatic processing of film if you had set the time for 90 secs. (Hint: Notes say that Temperautre will increase depending on the time used) what temperature would you set to run at?
A. 90-95 ' F
B. 70-75 ' F
C. 50-60 ' F
D. 40-60 ' C
E. 80-120' C
A. 90-95' F
T or F
Solutions used for film processing deteriorate with use and exposure to air. They also need to be replenished daily
A. First statement is true; second statement is false
B. First statemtn is false; second statement is true
C. Both statements are true
D. Both statements are false
C. Both satements are true
T or F

Depleted or exhausted (developer) use causes slower removal of unexposed crystals and silver thiosulfate complexes which results in incomplete clearing and rfilms turn brown with age!
False: Fixer
Which of the following is a clearing agent in the fixer?
A. Potassium alum
B. Ammonium thiosulfate
C. Acetic Acid
D. Hydropquinone
E. Sodium Sulfate
B. Ammonium Thiosulfate
Placing the film in fixer first results in?
A. Black image
B. Clear image
C. A mottle film
D. No change
Didn't mark the answer from class. It should be in your handouts
What is the cause of yellow-brown stains appearing on the film some months after processing?
A. Aged film
B. Improper exposure
C. Films stored in hot place
D. Incomplete fixing and washing
E. Use of depleted fixer solution
E. Use of depleted fixer solution
What can be used to evaluate the image quality?
A. contrast sheets
B. Step-wedge
C. BID
D. MXC
E. Density test strip
B. Step-wedge
How often should you replace all the chemicals?
Every 15 working days
T or F

The loss of step wedge outlines on film indicates good image quality
False; Poor image quality
T or F

rapid processing chemicals may be used in emergency and endodontic situations; They are less concentrated than the standard solutions and require more time.
A. First statement true, second statement false
B. First statement false, second statemtent true
C. Both statemtns true
D. Both statements false
A. First true, second false

More concentrated and only takes 15 seconds fixing and 15 secs developing
Finger nail marks on an image are created by which of the following?
A. Bending the film
B. Scratches due to dirty rollers in automatic processing
C. Dirty hands
D. Both A and B
E. All of the above
D. Both A and B
The recommended darkroom temperature should range between?
A. 40-60 'F
B. 50-60 'F
C. 60-70' F
D. 50-70' F
E. It doesnt really matter
D. 50-70' F
Light that leaks into the dark room can cause what kind of problems with the film?
Fog
Which Color filter is yellow/orange?
A. Kodak ML-2
B. Kodak GBX
C. Kodak RXC
D. Kodak IGM-4
A. Kodak ML-2
Which color filter is Ruby red in color?
A. Kodak ML-2
B. Kodak GBX
C. Kodak IMG-5
D. Kodak NX
B. Kodak GBX
Which filter is only used with ultra-speed (D-speed) intraoral film?
Kodak ML-2
Which type of filter is safe with all extraoral and intraoral films?
Kodak GBX
Time limit under safelight should not exceed how long?
5-8 minutes
What is the recommended distance for a 15 watt bulb
4 feet
Prolonged exposure to a filter light can cause?
fog
What method is used to test safe lights in the darkroom? explain
Penny test
Leave the film on the work bench for the approximate time that takes to open a packet and feed it in the processor; Process the film and if image of penny is visible darkroom is not safe
When mounting and viewing the radiographs that have been process the raised dot should be toward the viewer. The Dot always towards the occlusal surface.
A. Statement 1 true / Statement 2 false
B. Statement 1 false/ Statement 2 true
C. Both statements true
D. Both statements false
C. both true
At OUCOD in Bitewing films the dot is toward?
A. the upper right corner
B. the upper left corner
C. The lower edge
D. The upper edge
E. None of the above
C. The lower edge
T or F
More exposure to light will produce less density on film
True
T or F
Typically, after duplicating a film, The duplicated films have less resolution and higher contrast
True
What two things are added to automatic developer solution?
Hardeners - gluteraldehyde, and Sulfates
When manually drying films what temperature should the films be hung in?
49' C