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21 Cards in this Set

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What is anemia?
a disorder of oxygen-carrying capability either in RBC or a defect in the hemoglobin molecule (profusion disorder)
what is the etiology of anemia?
may be a result of dietary def., genetic, or autoimmune.
what is magaloblastic anemia?
large hemanopoetic cells located in the bone marrow, source of all blood cells, platelets and WBC's. This type of anemia does not require an intrinsic factor
name three types dietary related anemia
*iron deficiency
* pernicious; def in vitamin b12(cobalamin) due to a loss of intrinsic factor
*folate def.:also called magaloblastic (parent of blood cells) anemia
What is thalassemia autosomal dominant
a genetic form of anemia, results in an amino acid change in hemoglobin molecule.(when one amino acid has been substituted for the one that should be there
thalassemia major:
genetic form of anemia; a severe form of the disease resulting form homozygous inheritance (both are recessive; tt)
thalassemia minor:
a milder form of the disease resulting from heterozygous inheritance (T,t one dominant, one recessive
what is sickle cell anemia?
an autosomal dominant disease affecting predominately blacks and individuals of Mediteranean descent; defect is also an amino acid substitution in hemoglobin molecule, causeing the RBC's to assume a sickle shape and lead to congestion within capillaries and ischemai of the tissue
sickle cell anemia
this disease is the most severe form due to homozygous inheritance and sickle cell trait is a milder form due to heterozygous inheritance
what are the oral manifestations of sickle cell anemia?
angular cheiletis, atrophy of the oral mucosa, erythema of tongue, loss of filiform and fungiform papillae in severe or chronic cases
clinical manifestaiton of sickle cell anemia?
includes pallor and fatigue
treatment for sickle cell anemia
replace def. With pernicious anemia B12 injections are given to bypass the GI tract where the intrinsic factor is missing
what is aplastic anemia
results in a severe decrease of all circulating blood cells including red blood cells, white blood cells(leukopenia), and platelets (thrombocytopenis). Pts tend to be very, very sick. This is a very painful disease
etiology of aplastic anemia
primary: unknown
secondary: chemical or radiation
treatment of aplastic anemia?
primary- supportive, but usually fatal
secondary- remove etiology
what is polycythemia?
an abnormal increase in RBC count; either absolute (lack of oxygen)or relative
what is the etiology of polycythemia?
*neoplastic(primary polycythemia)- some type of malignancy in the bone marrow
*decrease in oxygen(secondary)
*decreased plasma volume(relative)
what are the oral manifestations of polycythemia?
evidence of purple to red mucosa, submucosal ecchymoses, petichiae or hematoma and spontaneous bleeding
treatment; chemotherapy and or the removal of the etiology
what is agranulocytosis
a severe reduction in circulating granulocytes, especially neutrophils, due to either a defect in production or accelerated destruction (susceptibility to opportunistic infections)
what are the clinical manifestations of agranulocytosis?
severe infections with fever, malaise, and necrotising ulcerations.
Treatment is antibiotics and transfusions
what is cyclic neutropenia?
periodic cycles of neutrophils decrease with cycles of normal count usually over a three to four week interval. severe infections, ulcerations, gingival and periodontal infections