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30 Cards in this Set

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Enamel Hypoplasia
(Environmental Effect)
- Incomplete or defective enamel formation
- Various causes and environmental influences
- Turner hypoplasia; antineoplastic agents; fluorosis; syphilis
- Restorative treatment as indicated
Attrition
Physiological wear do to tooth-tooth contact during occlusion
Abrasion
Tooth structure loss secondary to external agents (i.e. toothbrush); variety of patterns
Erosion
Cupped-out depression of occlusal surfaces or cusp tips; assoc. w/ regurgitated gastric acid or dietary acid
Abfraction
Wedge-shaped defect limited to cervical areas; bruxism assoc.
Tx for attrition, abrasion, erosion, abfraction
- Early diagnosis and intervention
- Construct mouth guards
- Inform pt regarding tooth loss from acid foods, reflux, etc.
- Lost tooth structure- replace w/ variety of restorative procedures
Internal Resorption
- Relatively rare
- Destruction of tooth structure accomplished by cells located in the dental pulp
- May be idiopathic or subsequent to trauma
- Teeth may appear pink
- Tx: endo therapy prior to perforation; once in communication w/ PDL, poor prognosis
External Resorption
- Relatively common
- Destruction of tooth structure accomplished by cells located in the PDL
- Causes: chronic inflammation, cysts, neoplasms, trauma, re-implantaion of avulsed teeth, impaction, idiopathic
- Tx: depends on the extent; extraction may be necessary
Extrinisic Stains
- Surface accumulation of exogenous pigment which can typically be removed by prophys
Intrinsic Stains
Endogenous material is incorporated into developing teeth (i.e. drugs, blood pigments)
- Cannot be removed
Hypodontia
- Reduced # of teeth
- Most common dental developmental anomaly; uncommon in deciduous teeth
- Variety of genetic, developmental, environmental reasons
- 3rd molars>2nd PM>lateral incisors
Oligodontia
Lack of 6+ teeth
Hyperdontia
- Presence of supernumerary teeth
- 1-3% of pop.
- More frequent in permanent teeth
- 95% maxillary, usually anterior
- Mesiodens; distodens; paramolar
- May affect occlusion, hygiene, esthetics
- Tx: removal may be indicated to avoid complications related to normal eruption
Microdontia
- Small teeth, may also affect shape
- Most commonly affected teeth; max laterals (peg) and 3rd molars
- Tx: restorative dentistry as indicated
Macrodontia
- Large teeth
- Uncommon
- Assoc. w/ various syndromes and systemic disease
Gemination
- Partial fusion of single tooth bud; crown appears split
- Usually seen in anterior
- Tooth count is normal
Fusion
- 2 tooth buds merge to form single large tooth
- Fused teeth share cementum and dentin; separate root canals
- Reduced # of teeth in arch
Concrescence
- Uncommon condition; characterized by the fusion of 2 teeth by cementum alone
- May be difficult to detect on radiographs
- More frequent in post maxilla
- Clinically significant if one of the involved teeth is extracted
Talon Cusp
- Rare condition that primarily affects the max incisors
- Exaggerated cingulum
- Significant if the talon cusp interferes w/ occlusion
- Gradual removal to allow for secondary dentin formation
Dens Evaginatus
- Extra cusp in central developmental groove
- PM teeth most commonly affected
- Tooth often becomes non-vital, presumably due to trauma
Dens Invaginatus
- Uncommon condition that primarily affects the max lats
- Tooth w/in a tooth
- Quite variable in severity
- Affected tooth often becomes non-vital shortly after eruption
Enamel Pearl
- Droplets of ectopic enamel
- Furcations of max or mand molars
- Pearls may have dentin and pulp horns
- May be detected by probing, if mistaken for calculus, can lead to exposure
Taurodontism
- Uncommon; radiographic finding
- Enlargement of the body and pulp chamber of multi rooted teeth; apical displacement of pulpal floor and furcation
- Similar to bovine dentition
- Result of chromosomal alterations; assoc. w/ various syndromes
Dilaceration
- Unusual; radiographic finding
- Curved/bent tooth rooths
- Etiology: trauma to developing tooth
- Complications: extractions or RCT
Amelogenesis Imperfecta
- Group of uncommon genetic disorders affecting tooth enamel
- Weak enamel is easily lost
- Varied patterns of inheritance
- Affects both primary and secondary teeth
- 3 divisions: hypoplastic, hypomaturation, hypocalcification
Clinical symptoms of amelogenesis imperfecta
- Rough, smooth, pitted, pigmented, or "snow-capped"
- Radiographs: thin enamel of normal or decreased density; normal root and pulp morphology
Dentinogenesis Imperfecta
- Uncommon
- Autosomal dominant inheritance; mutation of DSPP gene
- Affects primary and secondary teeth
- Abnormal dentin formation
- Similar dental changes may be seen w/ osteogenesis imperfecta
Clinical symptoms of dentinogenesis imperfecta
- Teeth appear translucent; "opalescent teeth"
- Enamel is normal, but poorly supported; rapid attrition of dentition is often seen
- Radiograph: bulbous crowns and obliteration of pulps
T/F Implants and/or dentures are often necessary for dentinogenesis imperfecta
True
Dentin Dysplasia
- Autosomal dominant; 2 types
- Type 1: Radicular Dentin Dysplasia=> radicular roots are very short, obliteration of pulp, periodical radiolucencies
- Type 2: Coronal Dentin Dysplasia=> enlarged pulps w/ "thistle tube" appearance, pulp stones
- Teeth may appear normal clinically