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132 Cards in this Set

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brand names: pepcid
generic name: famotidine
what is the drug class of pepcid
histamine h2 antagonist
what is the use of pepcid
gerd, pud, aspiration pna prophylasix
what is the mechanism of action of pepcid
block the h2 receptor on parietal cells->decrease gastric secretion
what is the dose of pepcid
20-40 mg (po), 20 mg iv
what is the onset of pepcid
po(within 1 hr), 30 minutes (iv)
what is the duration of pepcid
10-12 hrs
whats the adverse reactions of pepcid
ha, dizzy, diarrhea, constipation. agitation and vomiting in peds (14%)
what is the di of pepcid
increase level of digoxin and dapsone , decrease level of ketoconazole
contraindication of pepcid
renal impairment,prolonged qt drugs
how is pepcid metabolized?
liver
sodium citrate
bicitra
drug class for bicitra
nonparticulate antiacid, alkalizing agent
indications for bicitra
aspiration pna prophylasix, alkaline urine
mechanism of action of bicitra
neutralizing gastric fluid to form water
induction dose of bicitra
5-15 cc of .3 mol ,dilute up to 6 oz water/juice, usually 15-30 min prior to induction
onset of bicitra
5-10 min
duration of bicitra
30-60 minutes
adverse rxn of bicitra
n/v/diarrahea,stomach pain,fluid retension, hypoca
drug interaction of bicitra
decrease reabsorption in digoxin, tagamet, randitine, increase elimination of phenobarbital
contraindication of bicitra
renal impairment, sodium restricted diet
metabolism of bicitra
liver to active bicarb, excrete to urine
generic name :clonidine
brand name:catapres
drug class of clonidine
alpha 2 agonist, Centrally acting analgesic
use of clonidine
hypertension, cancer pain, adjunct for epidural infusion
mechanism of action of clonidine
presynaptic alpha 2 agonist. stimulate alpha 2 receptor->dec catecholamine in synapse-> decrease svr, decrease renal vascular resistance, decrease hr, bp
dosage of clonidine
initial dose: 0.1 mg po-0.2, additional dose of 0.1 mg q 1 hr prn ( max 0.6 mg total dose)
onset of clonidine
30-60 min
duration of clonidine
6-12 hrs
adverse of reaction of clonidine
sedation,dizzy,bradycardia,av block, dec bp
drug interaction of clonidine
level of clonidine is decreased by antidepressant, ssri, tca(doxepin), bradycardia is result when given with diltiazem.
contraindication of clonidine
hemodynamic instable patient, caution with mi, coronary insufficiency
how is clonidine metabolized
liver
generic name :vecoronium
brand name:norcuron
drug of class of vecoronium
nondepolarized nmb
use of vecoronium
induce muscle relaxation for ETT, relax skeletal muscles during surgery
mechanism of action of vecoronium
block acetylcholine from binding to receptors on motor endplate inhibit depolarization
dose for vecoronium
0.08-0.12 mg/kg
rsi-0.3-0.4 mg/kg
infusion-1-2 mcg/kg/min
PEDIATRIC:0.1 mg/kg
onset for vecoronium
3-5 min
duration for vecoronium
20-40 min
adverse rxn for vecoronium
prolong apnea, bradycardia, cv collapse, bronchospasm, acute quad myopathy syndrome(prolong use)
drug interaction of vecoronium
dysrrythmia with theophylline. increase levels of vecoronium when given with ketorlac,lasix, aminoglycoside, ccb
contraindications with vecoronium
hepatic dx, no vent support
metabolism of vecoronium
liver (40-60%) to active metabolite, bile(40-75%)>renal elimination(30%)
generic :ondansetron
us brand name:zofran
drug class of ondansetron
antiemetic,selective 5ht3 blocker
use of ondansetron
ponv,give at the end of sx
mechanism of action for ondansetron
selective block serotonin 5 ht3 receptor, both peripherally on vagal nerve terminals, and centrally in CTZ
dosing of ondansetron
4 mg iv q 4-8 hrs
onset of ondansetron
30 min
duration of ondansetron
4-8 hrs
adverse rxn of ondansetron
headache (if given rapid), malaise, fatigue, constipation, ++pain on injection,prolong QT
di of ondansetron
Zofran will increase level of apomorphone,Quinine, prolong QT agents, dronedarone
contraindications of ondansetron
hepatic impairment (dec dose), prolong qt drugs
metabolism of ondansetron
liver (p450)
generic name: ephedrine
brand name: ephedra
drug class of ephedrine
alpha/beta agonist
use of ephedrine
anesthesia induced hypotension, bronchospasm,nasal congestion
mechanism of action of ephedrine
b1 agonist,weak alpha agonist b1>b2, a1
dose of ephedrine
IV: 5-25 mg SLOW IV bolus

child : 0.1 mg/kg SLOW IV bolus
onset of ephedrine
immediate
duration of ephedrine
1 hr
adverse rxn of ephedrine
tachyphylaxis, htn, tachycardia, mi, arrythmia,cp
di of ephedrine
ephedrine levels increased by antacid, MOAI, SSRI.
contraindication of ephedrine
htn,cva,thyrotoxicosis, dm, preg women >130/>80, arrythmia, narrow angle glaucoma
metabolism of ephedrine
liver
generic name:metoclopramide
brand name:reglan
DRUG class of reglan
antiemetic,prokinetic
use of reglan
prevent opioid induced decreased GI motility during post op, PONV, GERD
mechanism of reglan
block dopamine & serotonin in ctz, peripherally enhance ach in upper gi tissue->enhance motility, emptying
dose of reglan
10-20 mg IV/IM
onset of reglan
3-5 min
duration of reglan
1-2 hrs
adverse of reglan
tardive dyskinesia,sedation,fatigue,sz, bradycardia,drowsy
di of reglan
atropine, glycopyrolate block prokinetic of reglan, MOAI(excess release NT), reglan decrease digoxin and tagamet level, prolong nmb when given with sux
contraindications of reglan
gi obstruction, pheochromocytoma, hx of sz
metabolism of reglan
liver(85%)
generic name: scopolamine
brand: scopace
drug class of scopolamine
anticholinergic agent, antiemetic
use of scopolamine
prevent ponv, reversal, antispasmotic, motion sickness
mechanism of scopolamine
anticholinergic, competitive block of ach at muscarinic receptor.block histamine and serotonin
dose of scopolamine
0.3-0.65 mg iv/im/sq (give it 30-60 min prior to induction)
onset of scopolamine
15 min- 1 hr(PO), IV (10 min)
duration of scopolamine
4 hrs
adverse of scopolamine
dry mouth, dizzy, confusion, blurry vision, pruritis, tachycardia
di of scopolamine
increase level of scopolamine by droperidol, pramlintide.

scopolamine can increase levels of ssri, anticholinergic.
contraindication of scopolamine
closed angled glaucoma, gi obstruction, paralytic ileus,tachycardia secondary to thyrotoxicosis, Mitral stenosis
metabolism of scopolamine
liver
generic name is lorazepam
brand name is ativan
drug class of ativan
benzodiazepine
use of ativan
anxiolysis,sedation,status epil.,amnesia, preanesthesia
mechanism of action for ativan
bind to benzodiazepine receptor on postsynaptic GABA-> cl- influx-> hyperpolarization. enhance inhibitory effect of GABA. GABAmimetic
dosage of ativan
iv sedation (0.03-0.04 mg/kg iv)
onset of ativan
slowest (1-5 min
duration of ativan
6-8 hr
adverse rxn of ativan
resp depression,hypotension, confusion, rash
di of ativan
increase cns depression with st. john wort, alcohol.

increase levels of ativan by loxapine, droperidol.
contraindications of ativan
severe hypotension, sleep apnea, acute narrow angle glaucoma, preg, resp depression
metabolism of ativan
hepatic to inactive compound. excrete by urine & feces. protein binding: 85%
generic name:ketorolac
brand name:toradol
drug class of ketorolac
nsaid
use of ketorolac
short term moderate-serve acute pain, favorable alternative to opioid for postop analgesia
mechanism of action of ketorolac
inhibit cox1+2->prevent conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin (antipyretic,analgesia, antiinflammatory)
dose of ketorolac
60 mg IM /30 mg IV.
PEDIATRIC: 0.5 mg/kg followed by 0.25-1 mg/kg q 6 hr (max 90 mg/day)
onset of ketorolac
<1 min, 10 min (IM)
duration of ketorolac
6-8 hrs
adverse of ketorolac
HA,inhibit platelet aggregation, inc bleeding, renal toxicity, GIB,
di of ketorolac
ketorolac increase level of :ASA,NSAID, aminoglycoside, anticoag.
contraindications of ketaloc
l&d, breastfeed, renal impairment, active GIB, cerebrovascular bleeding
metabolism of ketalorac
liver
generic name: phenylephrine
brand name:neosynephrine
drug class of phenylephrine
adrenergic agonist, vasopressor
use of phenylephrine
hypotension, shock
mech of action of phenylephrine
alpha 1 agonist, potent and direct acting
dose of phenylephrine
100-500 microgram iv bolus
continous dose:0.4-9.1 mcg/kg/min (shock)
onset of phenylephrine
immediate
duration of phenylephrine
15-30 min
adverse of phenylephrine
htn,reflex bradycardia, resp. distress, dec renal perfusion
di of phenylephrine
level of neo increase by MAOI, Tricyclic antidepressant, sympathomimetics
contraindication of phenylephrine
severe HTN,VT, close angle glaucoma
metabolism of neo
liver,intestine with monoamine oxidase
generic name:edrophonium
brand name:tensilon,enlon
drug class of edrophonium
acetylcholinesterase inhibitor,anticholinergic agent
use of edrophonium
reversal of nondepolarizing NMB, Dx of myasthenia gravis
mechanism of action of edrophonium
inhibit destruction of ACH by achcholinesterase->inc cholinergic responses
dose of edrophonium
0.5-1 mg/kg IV
onset of edrophonium
most rapid (1-2 min)
duration of edrophonium
5-20 mins
adverse of edrophonium
arrythmia( bradycardia), av block,increase salivation, decrease bp, laryngospasm, SZ
di of edrophonium
decrease level of nondepolarizing NMB. edrophonium increase levels of BB, Succinylcholine, Cholinergic agonist
contraindications of edrophonium
gi/gu obstruction,allergy to sulfites
metabolism of edrophonium
liver