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170 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are the borders of the oral cavity?
inner surfaces of mandible, teeth, palate
what is in the oral cavity when it's closed and empty of food?
tongue
where is the oral vestibule?
is area that separates teeth from lips and cheeks
what bones support the oral cavity?
maxillae or upper jaw
palatine bones
mandible or lower jaw
what do the alveolar processes do?
contain sockets that house teeth
where are the alveolar processes?
in maxilla and mandible
how many permanent teeth does an adult have?
32
how many permanent adult teeth are in each quadrant of the mouth?
8 because there are a total of 32 teeth
what are the names of the teeth?
going from front to back
central incisors
lateral incisors
canines
first premolars
second premolars
first, second, third molars
what arteries supply the maxillary and mandibular teeth?
superior and inferior alveolar arteries respectively
what artery do the superior and inferior alveolar arteries come from?
maxillary artery
what nerve supplies sensory innervation to teeth of maxilla?
superior alveolar nerves
what nerve provides superior alveolar nerves? superior alveolar nerves branch off what nerve?
maxillary nerve - CN V2
what are the names of the veins and what is their path that drain the maxillary and mandibular teeth?
superior and inferior alveolar veins
what nerve supplies the teeth of the mandible?
inferior alveolar nerve
what nerve does the inferior alveolar nerve branch off of?
mandibular nerve or CN V3
what hole does the inferior alveolar nerve enter to later emerge from mental foramen?
mandibular foramen and it's on the inner surface of ramus
what's the nerve coming out of the mental foramen called?
mental nerve
what is the mental nerve called before it comes out of the mental forament?
inferior alveolar nerve
where would a dentist inject anesthetic to block sensation from the lower teeth?
near mandibular foramen
what foramen is right on the inside of the incisors, on the hard palate?
incisive foramen
what bone is the palatine process a part of?
maxilla
what bone is anterior to maxilla/palatine process?
incisive bone or premaxilla
what bone is still part of the hard palate, but most posterior?
horizontal plate of palatine bone
what are the names and where are the palatine foramina?
2 of them;
1. greater - posterior part of hard palate, located laterally
2. lesser - much smaller than greater, more posterior than greater
what's the relationship of the vomer to the hard palate?
it connects with it!
where's the posterior nasal spine?
the tip of the most posterior part of hard palate
where the hell is the hamulus of the medial pterygoid plate?
is bony projection off hard palate VERY posterior
as seen looking up at roof of mouth
where's the tubercle of the medial pterygoid plate?
is medial to hamulus, more posterior
bony projection again
as seen while looking up at roof of mouth
what are the bones of the hard palate?
palatine processes of maxillae
horizontal plates of palatine bones
what should i note about the mucous membrane over the hard and soft palate of the mouth?
its focally elevated to form medial longitudinal ridge and transverse corrugations
what pass through the incisive fossa?
1. nasopalatine nerve which is sensory
2. greater palatine artery
3. greater palatine vein
where does most venous blood from palate drain?
pterygoid plexus
what structures pass through greater palatine foramen?
1. greater palatine nerve - sensory
2. greater palatine artery
what nerves branch off the maxillary nerve in the cheek?
listed from deep to superficial, first to branch vs. last
4 that i should know
1. posterior superior alveolar nerve
2. middle superior alveolar nerves - there are two branches off maxillary nerve called middle
3. anterior superior alveolar nerve
4. infraorbital nerve coming out of infraorbital fossa
what nerves come off trigeminal ganglion to head down ramus of mandible?
inferior alveolar nerve is most lateral
lingual nerve is more medial
what nerve gives rise to dental plexus?
inferior alveolar nerve
where in the palate can the nasopalatine nerve and sphenopalatine artery - terminal branch be found?
most anterior and medial
where does greater palatine nerve come across palate?
starts middle of palate, laterally and branches as heads inward to spread across top of palate
where the hell is the tensor veli palatini?
looks like it's covering hamulus of medial pterygoid plate
is part of soft palate
what does the tongue do?
helps with chewing, mastication;
swallowing or deglutination
and sound production
provides taste sensation
where's the terminal sulcus of the tongue?
is V-shaped line formed from developmental leftovers that divide anterior 2/3rds of tongue from posterior 1/3rd
where's the foramen cecum in the mouth?
is near apex of terminal sulcus
what causes formation of foramen cecum on tongue?
is remnant of thyroglossal duct from development
what and where ar the vallate papillae?
these are bumps containing taste buds in a single row anterior to terminal sulcus
what embryological pharyngeal arch develops into tongue?
anterior 2/3rds of tongue - first branchial arch
posterior 1/3rd - from third branchial arch
what nerve innervates the anterior 2/3rds of tongue, giving GENERAL sensation?
lingual nerve = is branch of mandibular nerve CN V3
what nerve provides taste sensation to anterior 2/3rds of tongue?
chorda tympani which is from CN VII, facial nerve
does the chorda tympani provide taste sensation from vallate papillae?
no; but it does for the rest of the anterior 2/3rds of the tongue
what nerve gives sensory innervation including taste to postrior 1/3rd of tongue?
glossopharyngeal nerve CN IX
what nerve innervates the vallate papillae?
glossopharyngeal nerve
where are the lingual tonsils?
lingual refers to tongue, so lingual tonsils are toward the posterior part of the tongue
these, along with palatine and pharyngeal tonsils provide ring around pharynx protecting it from stuff
what's the lingual frenulum?
is thin, transparent mucosa on inferior surface of tongue that partially connects anterior tongue to floor of mouth
what are the intrinsic muscles of the tongue?
4 pairs
1. superior longitudinal
2. inferior longitudinal
3. transverse
4. vertical
where do the intrinsic muscles originate and insert?
on tongue
what do the intrinsic muscles of the tongue do?
effect is to change SHAPE of tongue
is complex
how many extrinsic muscles are there and what do they generally do?
are 4 paired muscles and they control the POSITION of the tongue
what are the names of the four pairs of extrinsic tongue muscles?
1. genioglossus
2. hyoglossus
3. styloglossus
4. palatoglossus
what is the origin, insertion and action of the genioglossus muscles?
origin: mental spine of mandible
insertion: tongue and hyoid bone
action: pulls tongue inferior and anterior
what's the origin, insertion and action of the hyoglossus muscles?
origin: hyoid bone
insertion: lateral tongue
action: pulls tongue inferior and posterior
what's the origin, insertion and action of the styloglossus?
origin: styloid process of temporal bone
insertion: tongue
action: retracts tongue and elevates sides of tongue
what's the origin, insertion and action of the palatoglossus muscles?
origin: soft palate
insertion: side of tongue
action: elevates posterior tongue
what other areas are the palatoglossus muscles considered part of besides the extrinsic muscles of the tongue?
part of oropharynx and soft palate
what nerve innervates the palatoglossus muscles?
CN X via pharyngeal plexus
what nerve innervates the muscles of the tongue?
hypoglossal nerve - CN XII innervates all tongue muscles EXCEPT palatoglossus muscles and geniohyoid
what's the origin, insertion and action of the geniohyoid muscles?
origin: mental spine of mandible
insertion: hyoid bone
action: pulls hyoid anterosuperiorly
innervation: spinal nerve C1 via ansa cervicalis
what's the order of the muscles of the jaw/tongue starting just below skin/fascia and going up through tongue?
platysma
digastric
mylohyoid
geniohyoid
genioglossus
superior longitudinal muscle - towards posterior of tongue
where's the anterior lingual gland?
is in tongue, towards tip of tongue
where's the apex of the tongue?
that would be the tip of the tongue
where's the sublingual salivary gland?
lingual = tongue so sublingual = under tongue
where are the lingual follicles, whatever those are?
on posterior part of tongue
what muscle can help identify the lingual and hypoglossal nerves?
hyoglossus muscle
what's the path of the lingual artery, considering extrinsic muscles of the tongue?
passes under hyoglossus m. and styloglossus, over genioglossus
what artery supplies blood to the tongue?
lingual arteries
what artery do the lingual arteries come off of?
external carotid arteries
what are the names of the veins that drain the tongue?
lingual veins
what major vein do the lingual veins drain into?
internal jugular vein
where are the lingual artery and vein located?
close to ventral surface of tongue
what are the names of the salivary glands and where are they?
parotid gland - inferior to external ear and between ramus of mandible and sternocleidomastoid muscle
submandibular gland - below and adjacent to medial side of body of mandible
wraps around posterior edge of mylohyoid muscle
sublingual gland - smallest of three pairs of salivary glands
floor of mouth tween genioglossus and mandible
how many pairs of salivary glands are there?
3
what's the smallest and largest of the salivary glands?
smallest = sublingual
largest = parotid
what connects the parotid gland to the oral cavity? what's the passage of this "duct"?
is parotid duct
passes through buccinator muscle, empties into oral vestibuleby second upper molar
where does the submandibular duct leave the submandibular gland and where does it empty out into mouth?
submandibular duct leaves gland deep to mylohyoid muscles
opens on floor of mouth near attachment of lingual frenulum
how are secretions of the sublingual gland delivered to the oral cavity?
via major duct next to submandibular duct and several adjacent minor ducts
what are the muscles of mastication?
1. masseter
2. temporalis
3. lateral pterygoid
4. medial pterygoid
what nerve innervates the buccinator and why is it not considered a muscle of mastication?
CN VII innervates buccinator
it does help with mastication, but i don't know why it's not considered a muscle of mastication
what muscle forms the lateral wall of the oral vestibule?
buccinator
are the geniohyoid muscles considered extrinsic muscles of tongue?
no
what determines the shape of the nose?
nasal cartilage
what are the different kinds of cartilage in the nose?
1. lateral cartilage
2. alar cartilage
3. septal cartilage
sesamoid?
what does the nasal septum separate?
nares
where are the lateral, sesamoid septal and alar cartilage in the nose?
lateral is most superior, just under nasal bone
sesamoid is small area of cartilage just under lateral cartilage
septal is just in the middle, as name implies
alar represent wings of nose, most inferior
where's the perpecidulcar plate of ethmoid in relation to vomer?
perpendicular plate of ethmoid is superior, posterior part of septum of nose
vomer is most inferior, posterior part of septum
where's the anterior nasal spine?
is most inferior point of bony septum
how many nasal cavities are there?
2
what connects the nasal cavities?
piriform apertures
where the hell is the choanae?
is opening connecting nasal cavities to nasopharynx
what's the shape of the nasal cavities?
sides inferiorly and narrow superiorly
what separates the nasal cavities?
nasal septum
what forms the official septum of the nose?
anterior portion of septum formed by septal cartilage
the vomer and perpendicular plate of ethmoid forms the posterior part of the septum
what is the roof of the nasal cavity?
ethmoid and sphenoid bones
what makes up the lateral wall of nasal cavity?
inferior concha
ethmoid
nasal
maxilla
lacrimal
palatine
sphenoid
what forms the floor of the nasal cavity?
maxilla and palatine bones - also form roof of oral cavity
where is the olfactory area?
high in nasal cavity, along roof, upper septum and on superior nasal concha
fibers of the olfactory nerve pass through what to get to the olfactory area?
pass through cribriform plate of ethmoid to get to special sensory cells in olfactory area
what bones are the inferior, middle and superior nasal conchae part of?
inferior nasal concha is its own bone
middle and superior nasal conchae are part of ethmoid
what's the purpose of the conchae?
increase surface area of nasal cavity
provides warmth and moisture to inspired air
what's meatus mean?
means channel-like passaage
what are the spaces between each conchae called?
inferior meatus is under inferior concha
middle meatus is under middle concha
superior meatus is under superior concha
where's the vestibule of the nose?
refers to what we see when look up our nose
where's the limen of the nose?
is area just above vestibule
about at level of inferior concha
where's the atrium of the nose?
atrium is above limen, about level of inferior and middle conchae
what nerve supplies the posterior nasal septum?
nasopalatine nerve
what bigger nerve does the nasopalatine nerve come off of?
maxillary nerve
what nerves innervate the anterior septum and anterior lateral wall of nose?
anterior ethmoidal nerve
what nerve does the anterior ethmoidal nerve branch off of?
is nasociliary branch of ophthalmic nerve CN V1
what nerve supplies the posterior lateral wall of nose?
greater palatine nerve
what nerve does the greater palatine nerve branch off of?
maxillary nerve, CN V2
what nerves supply the nasal cavity and what area of nasal cavity do they supply?
posterior septum = nasopalatine nerve
anterior septum, anterior lateral wall = anterior ethmoidal nerve
posterior lateral wall = greater palatine nerve
what arteries supply the nasal septum?
ethmoidal arteries
greater palatine artery
nasal septal artereis
labial branch of facial artery
what artery do the ethmoidal arteries come off of?
ophthalmic artery
what artery do the nasal septal arteries branch off of?
sphenopalatine artery
what arteries supply the lateral walls of the nasal cavity?
ethmoidal arteries
posterior lateral nasal arteries
labial branches of facial artery
what artery do the posterior lateral nasal arteries come off of?
sphenopalatine artery, like regular nasal septal arteries
nasal veins drain into what veins?
sphenopalatine, facial and ophthalmic
where can the internal nasal branch of the infraorbital nerve be found?
pretty much just under nose, where crease is under nose
where can the anterior ethmoidal nerve be found?
along top of nose
where's the olfactory bulb?
top of nose and beginning of anterior ethmoidal nerve
where are the greater and lesser palatine nerves?
greater = more anterior
lesser = more posterior
both are just above upper teeth, around low part of maxilla
where's the nasopalatine nerve?
goes from back of upper part of roof of mouth to front of roof of mouth, above teeth
where's the nasal branch of the anterior superior alveolar nerve?
follows along roof of mouth or floor of nasal cavity, either way you want to see it, culminating in internal nasal branch of infraorbital nerve
where are the internal nasal branches of anterior ethmoidal nerve?
dividing down into nasal cavity from top where anterior ethmoidal nerve is
what nerve does the anterior ethmoidal nerve come off of?
ophthalmic bulb
where in the nasal cavity are the anterior and posterior ethmoidal arteries?
on top of nasal cavity
where in the nasal cavity is the posterior septal branch of sphenopalatine artery?
goes down back of nasal cavity
where in nasal cavity is the greater palatine artery?
bottom of cavity
where in nasal cavity is septal branch of superior labial artery and superior labial branch of facial artery?
both are towards the front of the nasal cavity
where is Kiesselbach's area and why is it clinically important?
is circular area near front of nasal cavity, in center in terms of vertical orientation
clinically important because is area prone to nosebleeds
the anterior and posterior ethmoidal arteries are branches of what artery coming out of the orbit?
ophthalmic
how do the paranasal sinuses develop?
they come from evaginations of nasal cavity
what are paranasal sinuses?
air-filled spaces
where are paranasal sinuses?
in maxilla, ethmoid, sphenoid and frontal bones
are the nasal cavities continuous with the nasal sinuses?
yes
do the mucosa of the nasal sinuses secrete mucus?
yes
are all nasal sinuses present at birth?
no; frontal and sphenoid sinuses appear during second year of age
maxillary, ethmoid sinuses small at birth, but expand during puberty
this is what contributes to size and shape of face and resonance to voice during adolescence
why do our voices get lower at adolescence?
part of it hast to do with size of maxillary and ethmoid sinuses that get bigger during pubtery, adding size and changing shape of face
adds resnonace to voice
where are the frontal sinuses?
in front bone
behind superciliary arches
where does the frontal sinus drain?
into semilunar hiatus of middle meatus
what's the sensory innervation to the frontal sinus?
orbital branches of ophthalmic nerve - CN V1
where are the maxillary sinuses?
can extend from level of upper teeth to floor of orbit
are large
where do the maxillary sinuses drain?
through maxillary ostium via semilunar hiatus in middle meatus
what nerves supply the maxillary sinus?
superior alveolar nerves of maxillary nerve CN V2
where are the ethmoid sinuses?
are groups of small chambers called ethmoid cells in lateral parts of ethmoid bone
where do teh ethmoid sinuses drain?
anterior cells drain into infundibulum which is connected to middle meatus
middle ethmoid cells drain directly into middle meatus
posterior cells open directly to superior meatus
what nerve supplies the ethmoid sinuses?
ethmoidal branches of nasociliary nerve
where are the sphenoid sinuses?
in body of sphenoid bone
what connects the sphenoid sinuses to nasal cavity?
sphenoethmoidal recess
where's the sphenoethmoidal recess?
is superior and posterior to superior concha
what does the nasolacrimal duct do and where is it?
drains tears from eye
connects to nasal cavity beneath inferior concha
what type of infection frequently accompanies nasal infections?
infection of paranasal sinuses = sinusitis
what's another name for infection of paranasal sinuses?
sinusitis
what's a common complication of sinusitis?
mucosa can swell, blocking sinus drainage to nasal cavity
mucus accumulates and causes pain
maxillary sinus especially vulnerable to this because its drainage is high in sinus, so that makes draining difficult
what's the association between a tooth abscess and the sinus?
abscess can spread into sinus
taking out an upper tooth can leave a hole in floor of maxilla, that allows communication between the mouth and sinus = bad
what can happen to the bony walls of the sinuses in a bad infection?
they are thin and can erode
what structures are the sphenoid sinuses close to that could cause a problem if a severe infection were to erode the thin bony walls of the sinus?
pituitary gland is close by as are optic nerves and cavernous sinuses
what structures are the frontal sinusues close to that could cause a problem in the case of a severe infection that might erode away the thin bony walls of the sinus?
roof of orbit
what structures are the maxillary sinuses close to that could cause a problem should the thin bony walls of sinus erode in case of severe infection?
floor of orbit
what structure/s are teh ethmoid sinuses close to that could cause problems should the thin bony walls of those sinuses erode in case of severe infection?
medial wall of orbit
what bony structure of the skull forms the posterior wall of the sphenoid sinuses?
sella turcica
how big are the frontal sinuses?
1 inch high, 3/4 inch deep