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47 Cards in this Set

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How much climb performance is lost when an engine fails?
Climb performance depends on the EXCESS POWER needed to overcome drag. The 50% loss of available power results in approx 80% loss of the EXCESS power and climb performance.
What aircraft equipment checks are required under FAR part 91?
ss
Define single-engine absolute ceiling.
Absolute is the max density altitude that an aircraft can attain or maintain with the critical engine inoperative. Vyse and Vxse are equal at this altitude
What documents are required to be on the aircraft?
AROW
Airworthiness certificate
FAA Registration
Operating information and limitations (the pilot operating handbook and aircraft placards)
Weight and balance data.
Explain lost communications procedures.
VFR-squawk 7600, remain VFR and land ASA practicable
IFR-squawk 7600 and fly:
ROUTE-AVEF
ASSIGNED
VECTORED
EXPECTED
FILED

Altitude: (highest) MEA
Minimum IFR Altitude
Expected
Assigned
Will the propeller feather below 950 RPM? Why/why not?
Centrifugal stop pin prevents engine feathering below 950 RPM. However, if oil pressure is lost, the propeller will feather when the RPM is above 950 RPM.
Explain the PITOT STATIC SYSTEM
SS
Does the TWINSTAR have an alternate static source? If so, how is it activated and what actions are necessary to acquire the most accurate reading?
CC
What instruments are pitot static?
airspeed indicator
altimeter
VSI
Where is the pitot static port located?
CC
How do you prevent a heater overheat?
To prevent activation of the overheat switch upon normal heater shutdown during ground operation, turn the 3-position switch to FAN for 2 minutes with the air intake lever in the open position before turning the switch off. During flight, leave the air intatke open for a min of 15 seconds after truning the switch to off.
What is the fuel capacity? How many gallons are unusable?
52/50 USUABLE
79/76 USUABLE?
What grade fuel is to be used in the TWINSTAR?
Jet A
How many fuel pumps are on the aircraft?
CC
When are the electric fuel pumps to be used?
engine start
takeoff
landing
fuel selector changes
What are the various positions on the fuel selector control?
ON
OFF
X-FEED (cross feed)
Explain the procedure for cross feeding fuel when operating the right engine from the left tank.
R engine electric boost pump on
R fuel selector to X-FEED
Check R fuel pressure
R engine electric boost pump off
Check fuel pressure
If an engine failure occured at 5000' MSL, or a high density altitude, what would you do to get max performance from the operating engine after performing the in-Flight Engine Failure Checklist?
ss
If the cylinder head temp and oil temp approach the caution range, what can be doine to assist in cooling?
ss
Why does manifold pressure decrease approximately 1" every 1000' during climb?
ss
When an engine is inoperative or feathered, what indications will be observed on the manifold pressure gauge?
ss
Why is the MP guage not necessarily a good indicator in determining an inoperative engine?
ssss
Climb Performance Depends on:
PAD-W
POWER
AIRSPEED too little/much
DRAG-gear, flaps, cowl flaps, control deflection, prop, sideslip
WEIGHT
define: CRITICAL ENGINE
that engine, when it fails, most adversely affects the performance and handling qualities of the airplane.
In the TWINSTAR, clockwise rotation of the props contributes to the LEFT ENGINE being critical:
PAST
P-Factor
Accelerated Slipstream
Spiraling Slipstream
Torque
define: P-Factor
The upwards angle of the airflow causes the downward (right) side of the prop to have a greater airspeed and angle of attack than the upward (left) side. So the downward (right) side of the prop generates more thrust. Pull harder on the right side of the plane than on the left and the plane will yaw to the left.
Question: What causes drag?
Answer: There are primarily two types of drag, "induced" and "parasite," which create a combined total impact on airplane performance.
What are the two types of drag?
Induced (lift)
Parasite drag (form)
define: Induced Drag
Induced drag is a byproduct of lift, which results in wingtip vortices that increase the downwash behind the airplane's wings. The use of flaps, change of angle of attack, and deflection of the control surfaces all increase induced drag.
define: Parasite Drag
Parasite drag, which is normally made up of form, interference, and skin friction drag, is created by the disturbance of the airflow around the airframe by items such as its skin, antennas, landing gear, and air gaps located between control surfaces and airframe.
RE: Drag.., an increase in airspeed will result in..
Induced drag will decrease and parasite drag will increase as speed increases.
The effects of asymmetric propeller loading, referred to as "P-factor," are more pronounced when the airplane is flown at a _____ angle of attack.
P-factor is more pronounced at a high angle of attack. This is because the descending propeller blade is at a higher angle of attack (producing more thrust) than the ascending blade. This unbalanced thrust creates a yawing moment to the left. The effects also increase at low airspeeds and high power settings, such as during a climb.
Why is P-factor more pronounced at a high angle of attack.
This is because the descending propeller blade is at a higher angle of attack (producing more thrust) than the ascending blade.
The unbalanced thrust of the P factor creates...
This unbalanced thrust creates a yawing moment to the left. The effects also increase at low airspeeds and high power settings, such as during a climb.
Burning off fuel decreases the weight of the aircraft and ______ the stall speed. This _________ the safety margin between normal cruise speed and stall speed.
decreases; increases
Decreasing the weight of the aircraft decreases the stall speed and increases the safety margin between normal cruise speed and stall speed. A lesser weight means that less lift is required to support the aircraft. Therefore, the airplane can travel at a slower airspeed or at a lesser angle of attack to create the needed amount of lift. This is desirable because it gives the pilot a larger buffer between the normal cruise speed/angle of attack and the stall speed/critical angle of attack.
A lighter weight and, more importantly, careful airspeed management provides protection from an inadvertent stall/spin.
The type of drag created as a byproduct of lift is known as ___ drag.
induced
Induced drag is a byproduct of lift. When lift is created, a small amount of the high-pressure air on the underside of the wing spills upward, creating a downwash above. The downwash tilts the lift vector slightly backward. This backward force, acting in the direction opposite the flight path, is induced drag.
What is P-factor?
P-Factor is an aerodynamic effect that causes propellor-driven planes to yaw when they are flown at high power and low speed (takeoff and climbout, for example.)
Gear Down Before Landing Checklist
GEAR-hand on till/say 3 GREEN
FUEL SELECTORS-ON
FLAPS-25
MIXTURES-fwd
PROPS-FWD
FUEL PUMPS-ON
Define Single-Engine Service Ceiling
the max density altitude at which the single engine best rate of climb airspeed (Vyse) will provide a 50FPM rate of climb with the critical engine inoperateve
At what altitude are Vyse and Vxse equal?
Singel Engine Absolute Ceiling. The aircraft will drift down to this altitude when an engine fails.
Climb performance depends on...
EXCESS POWER needed to overcome drag
Drag Factors per Piper Seminole POH
Flaps 25
Flaps 40
Windmilling Prop
Gear Extended
Flaps 25-240 FPM
Flaps 40-275 FPM
Windmilling Prop-200 FPM (++)
Gear Extended-250 FPM
FAR Part 23: The FAA does not require milti-engine airplanes that weigh less than_____ or have a ______ to meet any specified single-engine performance critera.
less than 6000 pouunds
Vso speed under 61 knots
Seminole's max TOW is:
3800
Seminole's Vso speed is:
55 KIAS
Vxse
The airspeed for the steepest angle of climb on single-engine
Vyse
The airspeed for the best rate of climb on single-engine (or slowest loss of altitude on drift-down). BLUELINE (@ max weight)