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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What does ALARA stand for?
As Low As Reasonably Achievable
Is there a specific level of radiation dose for exposed person?
No depends not patient
Maximum permissble dose MPD
Maximum dose of ionizing radiation which in light of present knowledge will not be expected to produce any significant radiation effects in lifetime
What is not counted toward maximal permissble dose?
radiation necessary for medical or dental diagnostic purposes is not counted in the permissible amounts of radiation
NCRP occupational dose limit of stochastic effects
50 mSv
NCRP occupational dose limit of deterministic effects
Eye 150 mSv

skin 500 mSv
NCRP non occupational dose limit of stochastic effects
5 mSv
NCRP non occupational dose limit of deterministic effects
50 mSv
NCRP non occupational dose limit for embryo
0.5 mSv/month
NCRP limit for negligible dose
0.01 mSv
FMX D speed round equals how many days of background exposure
18.8 days
BWs 4 with D speed round equals how many days of background radiation
4.8 days
one pano equals how many bitewings
one pano equals four bitewings
Pano with Ca tungstate screen equals how many days of background radiation
1 day
Pano with Rare earth screens equal how many days of background radiation
10 hours
by how much does a rectangular BID reduce pts skin exposure
By how much does a E speed film reduce exposure to pts skin compared to D speed?
50% compared to D speed
FMX F round film equals how many days of background radiation
5 days
4 BWs with F round film equals how many days of backgound radiation
less than one day
advantages of collimation
reduced field of exposure and dose

decreased scattered radiation and film fog

increases film quality

skin surface exposed to less radiation
Recommendatins for using BID
open ended lead lined

long BIDs (8-16)


pointed cones not recommended
purpose of film holding devices
improve film stability and eliminates pt holding films

provide external guide for BID alignment
what is the advantages of faster film speed?
Reduces chance of pt movement during exposure

reduce pt exposure by 40-70%
recommended kVp
70-90 kVp reduces somatic exposure
who should wear a leaded protective apron and thyroid shield
Every pt

it minimizes unnecessary radiation
radiation operator is potentially exposed to
primary radiation

scatter radiation

leakage radiation
means used to stop unnecessary radiation

includes lead barriers,safe distance, or structures
most effective way of preventing scatter radiation exposure
Ways an operator protects herself from radiation
stand behind barrier

never stand in primary beam

never hold film in pt mouth

never hold tube head during exposure
How should operator stay protected if there is no barrier/shield?
position and distance stand at least 6 feet away and 90 135 degrees from primary beam
what is needed for film mounting and viewing?
opaque film mounts

masked view box

magnifying glass

subdued environmental lighting
quality assurance
steps that are taken to make sure that a dental office will make high quality x rays w/ max diagnostic info while minimizing radiation exposure to pt and staff
benefits of quality assurance
improve diagnosis

reduced radiation exposure

fewer retakes

time saving

cost saving

compliance w/state and federal regulations
2 categories of quality assurance
1. quality control

2. quality administration
quality control
test the performance of:
xray unit
film processing
image receptors
lead shields
film cassettes

use logs,dates,results, and corrective actions
quality administration
the managment aspect

assign responsibilities

determine optimum testing frequency

provide training

eval test results

eval correct actions and revision
with quality monitoring procedures what should be done annually
calibrate the xray machine

check lead aprons and thyroid collars for cracks
with quality monitoring procedures what should be done monthly
cleant intensifying screens and cassettes

check viewing conditions and boxes

perform safelight coin test

check exposure charts are posted by each machine
with quality monitoring procedures what should be done daily
clean darkroom/keep it dry

perfor prcessor quality cntrl

monitor quality radiographs

fill out radiology retake log

replenish processing slns

check temp and time
safelight in darkroom
15 watt bulb at least 4 ft away

kodak GBX 2 for 5-8 min

no unsafe illumination

test safe lt with coin test
when shoud safelights be replaced?
if used for 12 hrs/per replace every 2 yrs
with manual processing, when should sln be changed?
every 15 days and at each change scrub and rinse the tanks
2 kinds of automatic processing
1. ready to use
2. concentrated (mix w/water)
how is automatic procssor cleaned?
warm up processor and run cleaning film (8x10 cleanup flim) removes dirt and gelatin from rollers
how to avoid processing errors
clean processor regularly

replenish slns daily

check time and timp of processor daily

perform quality control every morning after replenishment and warm up
what do hi temps do to unexposed flm?
decrease contrast and increase fog
ideal temp and humidity of film
50-70F and 30-50% humidity
what does poor screen film contact cause?
fuzzy image
quality control of intensifying screems
inspected for worn or stained areas/ scratches

specks of dirt absorb lt and cause specks on film

clean it everday, dry with cotton. leave cassette open to dry

aply antistatic sln
When are xray machine test done? By whom? what do they check?
done yearly by technologist from radiation safety office

checks the following:

xray outpur mA and timer
xray machine quality kVp
focal spot and size
collimator and beam alignment
stability of tube head
what is needed of operator to take dental radiographs?
proper training
radiation safety course
do pts own radiographs?
no. when pt pays for radiographs they are paying for dentists abilty to interpret radiograpshs and arrive at diagnostice opinion based on xray and clinical findings

the dentist legally owns the xray but pts can have a copy
greatest protection against claim of negligence
common cause of malpractice suits
failure of dentist to use xray in diagnosis of cases involving pain or swelling
what if pt refuses radiographs?
note it in pts chart and have pt sign it

dentist can offer to take radiographs at no cost to pt or do not treat the pt
why should inferior xrays be retaken?
will be no use of evidence

reflection of dentists ability as a practioner and could cause irreparabel harm to reputatioin
when should dr prescribe xray/
only after clinical exam

order xrays only that help diagnosis
selection criteria for xrays
pts age
medical/dental history
phyxical signs
exposure should be reasonable
2 situations that mandate a xray
1. clincal evidence of abnormality

2. hi probablity of disease