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10 Cards in this Set

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Opiate abuse..what are the receptors involved that cause analgesia...separate area for euphoria?
Mu receptors in spinal cord, periaqueductal greay lead to analgesia effects. Mu receptors in the VTA, Nuc Acc, and prefronatl cortex result in euphoria activates DOPA receptors
What are the physical signs experienced by an opiate binge? Hence, what are the withdrawal symptoms?
Vasodilation, euphoria
Withdrawal..get cravings, dysphoria, CNS agitation and irritability
Heroin..How to best get high? What is the course of the high? How do you die from heroin (opiate in general) OD?
Inject, but can be snorted in higher concentrations. Orgasmic euphoria lasts from 45 seconds to a few minutes. The sedation for a few hours then withdrawal around one minute.
DEATH- respiratory depression..kill pCO2 baroreceptor
Where does most alcohol get absorbed and what are some factors that influence it? What mechanism?
Mostly, in the small intestine
Depends on food there (protein in best..like nothing is there...fat is worst)
Also, [] of booze, time, all due to SIMPLE DIFFUSION
Why do women have higher BACs than men even if they both drink the same amount?
Women have more fat (less absorbed) and hence a lower H2O volume (greater concentration.
Enzymatically, women have less alcohol dehydrogenase (less broken down)
Discuss the three enzymes in alcohol metabolism. Which are inducible (such as in the heavy drnker)? 1st order kinestics/zero order kinetcs...think about how a 6 beer night would be metabolized?
1st alcohol dehydrogenase...not inducible...fixed amount that gets saturated..does first order kinetics until it gets saturated
CYP2E1 (p450) inducible...get greater concentration in heavy drinkers...zero order kinetics whereby the rate is only dependent on the concentration of enzyme..not booze
Aldehyde dehydrogenase- final commn eliminatino step
Explain the Asian glow with alcohol?
They have less ADH and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase so excess alcohol remains in their blood stream and they vasodolation in the face
According to the French, why may alcohol indeed be cardioprotective? What is alcohol's effect on sleep?
increases HDL cholesterol
increases antioxidant qualities
increases tPA (anti-clotting agent)

Causes a disturbance in sleep architecture with decreased REM sleep
What property of alcohol is the main reason you feel like crap in the morning and adn crave salty foods at night? Sexual side effects of alcohol?
alcohol is a natural diuretic that causes you to lose much Na+/K+ and results in much water lose
Sexual..increase sexuality but decreased performance..Also see testicular atrophy in men and men lactating (growing breasts)
What medical issues (4) are the chronic alcoholis likely to experience? What is hepatorenal syndrome?
A. Peptic ulcers due to constant gastric secretions
B. Cirrhotic Liver
C. Reduced immunity in the form of decreased platelets, PMN activity, and T cell fn
D. Hepatorenal syndrome...hypotension in kidneys/liver