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60 Cards in this Set

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An internal communications pathway inside a computer that specifies the source and target address for memory reads and writes.
Address bus
An internal programming standard that allows various software that runs under the Windows operating system to communicate with the operating system and other programs.
ActiveX
Hardware or software designed to be compatible with many or all features of earlier versions.
backward-compatibility
A variant of the UNIX operating system upon which a large proportion of today’s UNIX software is based. beta software — During software development, software that has successfully passed the alpha test stage. Beta testing may involve dozens, hundreds, or even thousands of people, and may be conducted in multiple stages: beta 1, beta 2, beta 3, and so on.
Berkeley Software Distribution(BSD
A path or channel between a computer’s CPU and the devices it manages, such as memory and disk storage.
bus
Internal computer hardware that manages the data going into and loaded from the computer’s cache memory.
cache controler
Special computer memory that temporarily stores data used by the CPU.
cache memory
Cache memory is physically close to the CPU, and is faster than standard system memory, enabling faster retrieval and processing time.
In a networking environment, a computer that handles certain user-side software operations. For example, a network ____ may run software that captures user data input and presents output to the user from a network server.
client
The ability to share the computing load and resources by linking two or more discrete computer systems (servers) to function as though they are one.
clustering
Verifies code before it is run and monitors memory to clean up any leakage before it becomes a problem.
common language runtime(CLR)
A computer CPU architecture in which processor components are reconfigured to conduct different operations as required. Such computer designs require many instructions and more complex instructions than other designs.
Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC)
Standards that enable a software object, such as a graphic, to be linked from one software component into another one.
Component Object Model (COM)
COM is the foundation that makes object linking and embedding (OLE) possible.
An internal communications pathway that keeps the CPU informed of the status of particular computer resources and devices, such as memory and disk drives.
control bus
An internal communications pathway that allows computer components, such as the CPU, display adapter, and main memory, to share information.
data bus
Early personal computers used an 8-bit data bus. More modern computers use 32-or 64-bit data buses.
A utility built into Windows 95 and later versions to permit operation of a hardware modem to dial a telephone number for the purpose of logging on to a remote computer system via standard telephone lines.
dial-up networking (DUN)
(1) A logical grouping of computers and computer resources that helps manage these resources and user access to them.
(2) In Active Directory, a grouping of resources into a functional unit for management. The resources can be servers, workstations, shared disks and directories, and shared printers
domain
A digital signature that Microsoft incorporates into driver and system files as a way to verify the files and to ensure that they are not inappropriately overwritten.
driver signing
In Windows 95 and later versions, a software utility that permits a desktop computer to answer incoming calls, log on a user, and, with other software, permits the user access to the computer’s resources.
DUN server
First-level cache in a Xeon CPU that stores decoded instructions and delivers them to the processor at high speed.
execution-based cache
A computer CPU architecture that grew out of the RISC-based architecture, and enables the processor to work faster by performing several operations at once, predicting and speculating about operations that will come next (so that they are even completed before requested).
Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing (EPIC)
EPIC uses larger and more work area registers than CISC or traditional RISC-based CPU architectures.
The speed at which the processor communicates with the memory and other devices in the computer; usually one-fourth to one-half the internal clock speed.
external clock speed
Operating system commands that are stored in separate program files on disk. When these commands are required, they must be loaded from disk storage into memory before they are executed.
external commands
An Intel multithreading technology that enables a single processor to appear to the operating system as two separate processors, in which multiple threads of software applications are run simultaneously on one processor.
hyper-threading (HT)
A group of peripheral manufacturers that developed a set of standards for transmitting data using infrared light.
Infrared Data Association (IrDA)
In a computer CPU, the group of commands (instructions) the processor recognizes. These instructions are used to conduct the operations required of the CPU by the operating system and application software.
instruction set
The speed at which the CPU executes internal commands, measured in megahertz (millions of clock ticks per second) or gigahertz (billions of clock ticks per second).
internal clock speed
Internal clock speeds can be as low as 1 MHz and as high as more than 2 GHz.
A request to the processor so that a currently operating process, such as a read from a disk drive, can be interrupted by another process, such as a write into memory.
interrupt request (IRQ)
A security system developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to enable two parties on an open network to communicate without interception by an intruder, creating a unique encryption key per each communication session.
Kerberos
Cache memory that is part of the CPU hardware.
level 1 (L1) cache
Cache memory that, in most computer CPU designs, is located on hardware separate from, but close to, the CPU
level 2 (L2) cache
Cache memory that is located on a chip or daughterboard, which is separate from, but close to the CPU, when L1 and L2 cache are both already built into the CPU.
level 3 (L3) cache
An editor that is used to create text a line at a time.
line editor
A module optimized to perform complex math calculations.
math coprocessor
Modern system architectures have a CPU with one or more built-in math coprocessors.Early system architectures have a processor and an optional slot for a math coprocessor.
A CPU design that permits the processor to manage certain multimedia operations—graphics, for example—faster and more directly.
Multimedia Extension (MMX)
MMX technology improves computer performance when running software that requires multimedia operations.
A computer that uses more than one CPU.
multiprocessor computer
Running several program processes or parts (threads) at the same time
multithreading
Source code for software that is available to the general public free of charge.
open-source
A network operating system through which any computer can communicate with other networked computers on an equal or peer-like basis without going through an intermediary, such as a server or network host computer.
peer-to-peer network operating system
A CPU design that permits the processor to operate on one instruction at the same time it is fetching one or more subsequent instructions from the operating system or application.
pipelining
Software utilities that operate with compatible hardware to facilitate automatic hardware configuration.
Plug and Play (PnP)
Windows versions starting with Windows 95 recognize PnP hardware when it is installed, and, in many cases, can configure the hardware and install required software without significant user intervention.
A hardware facility in modern computers that permits certain hardware to shut down automatically after a specified period of inactivity.
power management
Proper use of power management facilities reduces hardware wear and tear, as well as energy usage.
The opposite of real mode and where you only use segment registers rather that real mode addressing.
privileged mode
A limited, 16-bit operating mode in PCs running early versions of Windows.
real mode
A computer CPU design that dedicates processor hardware components to certain functions. This design reduces the number and complexity of required instructions and, in many cases, results in faster performance than CISC CPUs.
Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC)
A Windows database that stores information about a computer’s hardware and software configuration.
registry
(1) A computer operating system subsystem that manages user access to a computer from a remote location, including security access. (2) A set of network services that can be installed on any Windows NT/2000/Server
2003 server connected to one or more
modems.
Remote Access Services (RAS)
Allows you to secure documents from copying, forwarding, and printing.
Rights Management Services (RMS)
A computer on a network that performs a function such as a file server that serves files to clients, or a print server that prints information for clients, or a database server that passes data from the server to the client.
server
A computer capable of supporting only a single CPU.
single-processor computer
A computer design that supports multiple, internal CPUs that can be configured to work simultaneously on the same set of instructions.
symmetric multiprocessing (SMP)
The computer hardware design that includes the processor (CPU), and communication routes between the CPU and the hardware it manages, such as memory and disk storage.
system architecture
A variation of the UNIX operating system. It is very popular today along with the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD).
System V Release 4 (SVR4)
A process in the operating system that keeps track of the applications that are running on the computer and the resources they use.
task supervisor
The cost of installing and maintaining computers and equipment on a network, which includes hardware, software, maintenance, and support costs.
total cost of ownership (TCO)
An initiative of more than 80 companies to develop products that can be quickly added to a computer or network. These include intelligent appliances for the home.
Universal Plug and Play (UPnP)
A relatively recent serial bus designed to support up to 127 discrete devices with data transfer speeds up to 12 Mbps (megabits per second).
Universal Serial Bus (USB)
A private network that is like a tunnel through a larger network—such as the Internet, an enterprise network, or both—and restricted to designated member clients.
virtual private network (VPN)
Software to facilitate individual computer access to graphical data presented over the Internet on the World Wide Web, or over a local area network in a compatible format.
Web browser
Used to hold data or programming code in a computer. The size of a ______ varies among computers. 16-bit computers have a ______ size of 16 bits and 64-bit computers have a _____ size of 64 bits.
word
A windowed user interface for UNIX/Linux and other operating systems.
X Window