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40 Cards in this Set

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Edward Thorndike
Puzzle box- put a cat in a box and once it had figured out how to pull the string it got a reward
Thorndike Law of effect
pleasing outcome will increase the behavior that lead to the effect. An adverse outcome will lead to a decrease in the behavior.
BF Skinner
mice in a box had to push bar for food

radical behaviorism- all behavior is based on rewards and punishments.
Positive reinforcement
GIVES a reward for behavior
Negative reinforcement
Someone preforms the behavior to take away an unwanted stimulus
what is the difference between a reinforcement and punishment?
reinforcement is trying to increase behavior

Punishment is trying to decrease behavior
Positive punishment
spanking
Negative punishment
taking away a desired thing- like playtime or a favorite doll
Shaping
Reinforcing a behavior through a series of small steps
Wolfgang Kohler
Watched monkeys stack crates to get a bananna- saw that the monkeys put this together in a series of small steps.
EC Tolman
cognitive maps and latent learning- lead mice around a maze in a cart, and although there was no reward/punishment system, the mice who had been lead around the maze knew the maze better than the mice who had not.
Bandura
Blow up doll

-We learn by watching
ie, agressive models increase our tendancy to act agressively
Development
Development
Critical period
A developmental milestone MUST be reached within a certain or else it will not be reached at all.
Sensitive period
Can develop the talent withing a realtively large window.
What is a cross sectional research design?
Looking at different ages all at the same time
What is a Longitudinal research design?
The long way: taking one sample and following them through their lives.
What is the cepholodocaudal principle?
Motor development in babies travels from the head to the feel
proximo distal principle
Motor control develops from the midline outward
What is a key feature of the sensorimotor period?
-Babies develop object permanance
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Key features of the properational
Emergence of imagination
symbolic thought
sharing issues
Key features of the concrete operational
reversibility
conservation of mass and volume
formal operational
complex concepts of truth death and justice
inductive reasoning
looking at the little things and drawing a big conclusion
Bias of inductive reasoning
Framing
50% success rate
50% failure rate of a drug

If we hear the success rate, we are more likely to draw the conclusion that the drug is effective.
Representative bias
People overusing prototypical information
Availibility bias
Think of words that have d as a letter in the 3rd position. it is easier to think of words with d as the first letter
conformation bias
we look for cues to confirm a belief
Fluid intelligence
how well wired your brain is--> this decreases over time
crystallized intelligence
Facts obtained over time. This increases with age.
Lawrence Kohlberg
stealing the cancer drug scenario.
Moral development
Freudian perspective
Social learning perspective (watching and learning what is right from wrong)
Cognitive development perspective of moral development
presynaptic facilitaion
more neurotransmitter is released form the site once learning has taken place.
assimilation
sensorimotor period
children use schemas they already have to adapt to the environment: childen assimilate rattles into their sucking schema
accomodation
a schema accomodates the rattle as the child grows. New information requires and existing schema to expand or a new schema to be created.
zone of proximal development
pushing a child beyone where they are to better reach their potential
fixed ratio schedule
participants produce a specific number of responses to get the desired reward
variable ratio schedule
number of responses varies between rewards.
fixed interval schedule
reward comes after specific time intervals
variable interval schedule
drug testing. when the time between rewards is random