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8 Cards in this Set

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Monosaccharides
- the simplest carbohydrates.

- consist of one sugar and are usually colorless, water-soluble, crystalline solids
- examples include glucose (dextrose), fructose, galactose, and ribose.
- they are the building blocks of disaccharides like sucrose (common sugar) and polysaccharides (such as cellulose and starch).
- each carbon atom that supports a hydroxyl group (except for the first and last) is chiral, giving rise to a number of isomeric forms all with the same chemical formula. For instance, galactose and glucose are both aldohexoses, but they have different chemical and physical properties
Monosaccharide Nomenclature
1. suffix is "-ose"

2. Monosaccharides are then classified according to:
a. whether they have an aldehyde (aldose) or ketone (ketose)
b. number of carbons (3 -tri, 4-tetr, 5-pent, 6-hex, 7-hept, 8-oct)

THUS: (keto-/aldo-) + (# of carbons) + -ose

- D/L designation refers to the HIGHEST NUMBERED CHIRAL Carbon atom (C3 for tetroses, C4 for pentoses, C5 for hexoses)
glucose
one of the monosaccharides!
- an aldose (aldehyde)
- a hexose (6 sugars)
fructose
one of the monosaccharides
- a ketose (ketone)
- a hexose (6 carbons)
lactose
one of the disaccharides!
glucose + galactose = lactose
- specifically: β-D-galactose and β-D-glucose molecules bonded through a β1-4 glycosidic linkage
maltose
one of the disaccharides!
gluose + glucose = maltose
specifically: two units of glucose joined with an α(1→4) linkage
sucrose
one of the disaccharides!
glucose + fructose = sucrose
- specifically: α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-fructofuranose
galactose
one of the monosaccharides!