• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/31

Click to flip

31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The diencephalon originates from the ____.
prosencephalon
What six structures are found in the diencephalon?
1. thalamus
2. hypothalamus
3. epithalamus
4. optic nerve
5. retina
6. third ventricle
The third ventricle receives CSF from the lateral ventricles cia the ____ ____.
interventricular foramina
The third ventricle drains CSF via the ____ ____.
cerebral aqueduct
The epithalamus consistes of the ____, the ____ ____ and the ____ ____.
habenula, habenular commissure, pineal gland.
The limbic lobe contains portions of the ____, ____ and ____ cortex.
frontal, temporal, parietal
The anterior commisure is a white matter tract connecting the right and left ____ lobes.
temporal
The fornix is comprised mainly of efferent axons from the ____ ____.
hippocampal formation.
The fornix has some cholinergic fibers from the ____ ____ projecting back to the hippocampal formation.
basal forebrain
Most of the fornix column passes posterior to the anterior commissure to terminate in the ____ ____.
mammillary body
What are the two options for precommissural fibers of the fornix?
1. some project to septal nuclei of the basal forebrain
2. others are cholinergic arising from the septal nuclei and projecting to the hippocampal formation.
Name the two thalamic nuclei most closely associated with limbic system function.
anterior nucleus, mediodorsal nucleus
The stria medullaris is a fiber bundle projecting from the ____ ____ and ____ to the ____
FROM septal nuclei and hypothalamus

TO habenula
The habenula is a limbic structure that projects to the ____ ____ of the midbrain via the ____ ____.
TO interpenduncular nuclues

VIA habenulointerpeduncular tract
Neurons of the reticular are important for what functions?
motor and autonomic functions

regulation of arousal and alertness
The Pre-Botzinger complex is a major driver of ____ ____.
respiratory rhythms
Which thalamic nuclei is involved in mediating emotional aspects of pain?
MD nucleus
Which thalamic nuclei is involved in mediating arousal aspects of pain?
intralaminar nuclei
The majority of raphe neurons produce what neurotransmitter?
serotonin
Describe descending serotonergic diffuse modulatory projections.
originate in raphe nuclei of medulla and pons
modulate breathing, temperature, motor control (via projections to cerebellum and spinal cord) and pain.
Spinomesencephalic fibers of the ALS terminate on neurons in the ____ ____ and mediate what?
periaqueductal gray

descending modulation of nociception
PAG neurons project to NRM neurons, which project to ____ ____ ____ to modulate incoming nociceptive information.
spinal dorsal horn
The pontomedullary reticular formation at the level of the facial nucleus contains important centers for ____, ____ ___ ____ and ____ ____.
respiration, horizontal eye movements, motor control
Neurons in the paramedian pontine reticular formation relay cortical signals for control of ____ ____ ____ to the abducens nucleus.
horizontal eye movement
The caudal pontine reticular nucleus gives rise to the ____ ____ tract.
pontine reticulospinal
The pontine reticulospinal tract projects ____ to all levels of spinal cord to innervate lower motor neurons in the ____ ____ ____ of the ventral horn of the spinal cord.
ipsilaterally

medial motor column
The central tegemental tract contains ascending fibers carrying taste information from the ____ ____ ____ to the ____ ____.
FROM rostral solitary nucleus

TO parabrachial nucleus
Locus ceruleus - neurotransmitter?
norepinephrine
Locus ceruleus the the source of the noradrenergic diffuse modulatory projection to thalamus and cortex. Why is this important?
Important for attention, regulation of sleep-wake cycles, mood.
The parabrachial nuclei project to the amygdala conveying what type of information?
visceral sensory and taste information -- mediates emotional response to gustatory or altered cardioresp function
The medial parabrachial Kolliker-Fuse area modulates respiratory rhythms. Bilateral damage at this level can cause ____ ____.
apneustic breathing