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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Goals of muscle energy technique
- Decrease asymmetry
- Decrease hypertonicity
- Lengthen fibers
- Reduce restraint of movement
- Alter related respiratory and circulatory function
Postisometric relaxation
Increased tension on Golgi organ proprioceptors in tendons - inhibits active muscles contraction
Reciprocal inhibition
Used when antagonistic muscles are contracted
Contraindications for muscle energy technique
- Painful muscle or group of muscles
- Patient with low vitality who could be further compromised - post surgical or patient with MI
Is muscle energy direct or indirect
Acute myositis etiologic factors
- Systemic toxicity
- Infection
- General exhaustion
- Fatigue
Acute myositis contributing factors
- Excessive draft
- Chilling
- Prolonged stressful positioning
- Occupational stress
Acute myositis involves what muscles
- Deep para vertebral
- Pre vertebral
- Posterior peri vertebral
Acute myositis is also sometimes called _
Describe treatment for acute myositis
- Manipulation should first be aimed at normalizing areas of primary somatic dysfunction and motion restriction
- Then treat areas of secondary somatic dysfunction and reactivity
- Painful area should not be initially treated
Whiplash injury is what kind of injury
Sudden and excessive flexion and extension
What is worse hyperextension or hyperflexion
Whiplash - Wright
Sudden hyperflexion of cervical spine, followed by spontaneous extension recoil of posterior articular ligament and ligamentum flavum
Whiplash- McHenry
- Acute hyperextension with flexion recoil
- Caused by blow from the rear
- Impact is indirect, inertia is passed from the car
Whiplash McKeever
- Sudden impact from the rear - shortening of the cervical spine
- Compression and evulsion result from this injury
Benign cervical vertigo
- Vestibular disturbance caused by cervical muscle spasm
- Tenderness, tissue texture changes and muscle spasms in OA and upper cervicals
- Unilateral spasm causes unilateral rotation of temporal bone
- Misdiagnosed as inner ear infection
Muscle tension headache
Bodys response to stress, anxiety, fatigue
- Skeletal muscle contraction and some reflex dilation of extracranial vessels
- Usually bilateral and described as fullness, tightness or pressure in forehead, temples or back of the head and neck
- Rarely associated with nausea and vomitting
- Sleep disturbances
- Increased sympathetic tone in muscle contributes to ischemic muscle tenderness
Describe direct technique
- Barrier is engaged
- Physician applies force toward or through the barrier
Describe indirect technique
Physician puts area of restriction into the freedom of motion in attempt to release it
Motor unit
Group of skeletal muscle fibers excited by single alpha motor neuron
Muscle spindle apparatus
Gamma motor neurons transmit signals to intrafusal fibers which contribute to muscle spindle apparatus
Describe recurrent inhibition
- Interneurons are located in anterior horn in close association with motor neurons
- Cause inhibition of neurons surrounding motor neuron that is carrying particular excitatory response
- Goal is to sharpen signal of the motor unit and prevent signal from diffusing which would weaken the signal
Muscle spindle reflex
Sends information to the nervous system about muscle length or rate of change in muscle length
Golgi tendon reflex
Sends information to nervous system about muscle tension or rate of change in tension
Muscle spindle composed of _
Intrafusal fibers
Example of reciprocal inhibition
If stretch reflex activates biceps, reciprocal inhibition inhibits triceps
Give example of crossed extensor reflex
Stretch reflex excites right biceps, crossed extensor reflex excites left triceps
Findings in anterior inominate
- ASIS inferior
- PSIS superior
- Pubes inferior
- Standing flexion test positive
- Freedom of motion is anterior rotation
Anterior ilium rotators
Tensor fascia lata
Quadratus lumborum
Internal abdominal oblique
Latissimus dorsi
Findings in posterior inominate
ASIS superior
PSIS inferior
Pubes superior
Freedom of motion - posterior rotation
Posterior rotation of inominate gives _ in leg length
Posterior hip rotators
Gluteus maximus
Biceps femoris
Piriformis (weak)
External abdominal oblique
Abducted ilium findings
- ASIS and PSIS displaced laterally
- Positive standing flexion test
Which muscles involved in abducted ilium
Gluteus maximus, medius and minimus
Findings in adducted ilium
- ASIS and PSIS are medial
- Positive standing flexion test
Which muscles involved in adducted ilium
- Obturator internus
- Iliacus
- Piriformis
- Gemelli
- Coccygeus
- Adductor minimus and magnus
Deep sulcus on right
ILA on left
Neg spring test
Left on left
Deep sulcus on right
ILA on right
Negative spring test
Unilateral sacral flexion on right
Deep sulcus on left
ILA on right
Negative spring test
Right on right
Deep sulcus on left and ILA on left
Negative spring test
Unilateral sacral flexion on left
Bilateral deep sulci
Bilateral sacral flexion