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108 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Superior facets of the atlas face _
Backward, upward, medially
Occipital condyles match_
facets of atlas
Occipital condylar compression
-Important for newborns
-Affecting CN IX, X, XI
-Can be cause of poor suck, swallowing difficulties, emesis, hickups, congenital torticollis, and pyloric stenosis
OA joint motion is limited by _
Muscular and ligamentous attachments
Primary motion of OA joint
How does occiput move with OA joint
Flexion - posterior translatory slide
Extension - anterior translatory slide
Lateral atlanto occipital ligament
Ligament of OA joint
-SB and rotation always in opposite directions
If occiput rotates on left axis, it slides _, SB _
Slides left
SB right
Atlanto axial joint motion is almost 100 % _
Is there flexion in AA joint
Describe AA joints facets
-There are 4 facets
-All are convex
-"wobble" in flexion-extension
-no true lateral flexion (SB)
In AA joint somatic dysfunction occurs in _
In AA joint movement is limited by _
-Except in rotation it is limited by dens and transverse ligament of atlas
Describe rotation of AA joint to right
-Left facet of AA joint slides up
-Right facet of AA joint slides down
Common place for somatic dysfunction in cervical region
C2-C3 - sustains tremendous stress - between final compensator and rest of the spine
Describe suboccipital articulation
AA joint + OA joint
Final compensator of the spine - keeps eyes level, promotes binocular vision
Describe IV discs of C3-C7
-Thickest of spinal discs
-Disk height: vertebral body ration - 2:5
-Wedge shaped - thicker anteriorly, maintains flexible cervical lordosis
Rotation and SB in C3-C7 are _
in same direction
C3-C7 facets form_
palpable articular pillars
Superior facets in C3-C7 face _
inferior face _
Superior - backward - upward
Inferior - forward - downward
C3-C7 move least in
Flexion C3-C7
-Inferior facet must slide up 45 degrees
-Rotation is primary motion when flexed
Extension C3-C7
-Normal lordotic curve
-SB is primary motion when extended
There is no neutral position in C3-C7 - T/F
Describe joints of Luschka
-Unciform joints
-Maintain stability while allowing motion
-Synovial joints
-Adaptation for upright posture
-Lateral edges of cervical vertebral bodies
-Develop at age 8-10
-Guide rails for flexion/extension
-Limit lateral translatory motion
Describe lateral translatory motion
-Limited by unciform joints
-Occurs with coupled motions of rotation and SB
-Would be excessive to the point of sublaxation if not for joints of Luschka
-Dysfunction of translatory motion causes complicated somatic dysfunction called "side slip"
Describe cervicothoracic junction
C7-T1 - transitional segment
-Cervical traits in upper portion, thoracic traits in lower portions
Describe articular pillars
"Lateral masses"
-Area between cervical facet joints
Anterior TP is the one that is _
Posterior _
less prominent
more prominent
Major motion of occiput
In occiput rotation and SB are to _
Opposite sides
Motion in C2-C7
Type II mechanics
Rotation and SB to same side
Osteopathy in Cranial Field
A form of osteopathic diagnosis and manipulative treatment of cranium, sacrum and related structures
Who discovered cranial osteopathy and named it primary respiratory mechanism
William Sutherland
D.O who used cranial OMM for treatment of cerebral palsy
Beryl Arbuckle
Contemporary D.O who has Osteopathic Children center in California and uses cranial therapy in treatment
Viola Frymann
Skull and facial bones are fused - T/F
False, they are NOT fused
Types of sutures
1. Serrate - sawtooth
2. Squamous- overlapping
3. Harmonic - edge-edge
4. Squamoserrate - combination
Examples of serrate sutures
Example of squamous suture
Example of harmonic suture
Example of squamoserrate suture
Functions of CSF
-Protection - floats CNS, provides mechanical buffer system
-Regulation of extracellular environment of neurons
-Spreads neuroactive hormones and substances through nervous system
Describe sinus drainage techniques
-Frontal sinuses
-Supraorbital notches
-Maxillary sinuses
-Infraorbital notches
-Lateral nasal bones/cartilage
Muscles of mastication
-Medial pterygoid
-Lateral pterygoid
Sphenobasilar synchondrosis is located between _
Occiput and sphenoid bone
-Fuses with age
Junction of nasal and frontal bones
Sphenoid, parietal, temporal and frontal bones come together
Pivot points
Points where bevels change
Where you change orientation of suture interiorly and exteriorly
Reciprocal tension membrane
Dura - falx cerebri, falx cerebelli - thick and non elastic, when you pull one part of it, it affects everything that is connected to it - cranial bones for example or cranial nerves
Muscles of mastication are innervatedby _
Motor part of trigeminal nerve
How do you get dysfunction of TMJ
Articular disc gets caught up in condyle, and you can have pain and deviation
Alternative systems
Oriental Medicine
Energy medicine
Meridian regulation
Qi Gong
Movement therapies
Alexander technique - works with posture
Pilates - dancers
Tai Chi
Watsu - water therapy, person floats in water while you unwind their fascial tissues
Dance therapy
Chelation therapy
Pulling heavy metals out of system - these heavy metals can affect whole system - arterial plaques. Chelation is medically indicated if you have heavy metal toxicity - you can do blood and urine tests for this
Founder of chiropractic medicine
DD Palmer
3 main types of chiropractic care
-Straight - focus on spinal subluxation
-Mixers - delve into other treatments like nutrition or other types of physiotherapy
-Network chiropractic - network spinal analysis - coming unwound
How many naturopathic schools are there
Founder of naturopathic schools
Benedict Lust - emphasizes natural healing - nutrition, prevention, herbalism, manipulation, homeopathy
3 principles of naturopathic medicine
-Body is self healing
-Symptoms are sign that body is striving to eliminate toxins and return to homeostasis
-Holistic approach of mind body spirit
What is homeopathy
Sugar pills that contain small amounts of homeopathic substances
Law of similars
Prescribing minute doses of substance causes similar symptoms of illness
Law of cure
Remedies work from
-top to bottom
-inside to outside
-from major organs to minor organs
-symptoms clear in reverse order of appearance
How is homeopathy different from allopathy
In homeopathy less concentrated a substance is, the greater effect it has on body, in allopathy increased dose has increased effect
5 elements of Ayurveda
Three principles tri dosha
Active range of motion tests _ while passive range of motion tests _
Active - tests muscular limitations of motion
Passive - tests ligamentous limitations of ranges of motion
Inversion and eversion of ankle occur at which joint
If you have inversion sprain, which ligament is damaged most often
Anterior talofibular ligament
Unhappy triad
Medial collateral ligament
Medial meniscus
Flexion of the knee
135 degrees
Extension of knee
0 degrees
Medial and lateral rotation of knee
Passive 10 degrees in 90 degrees flexion
When your foot is on the ground last 30 degrees of extension is accompanied by _
Medial femoral rotation
When your foot is off ground extension is accompanied by _
Lateral tibial rotation
Varus/valgus tests for knee check for _
Stablity of medial and lateral collateral ligaments
Drawer tests check _
ACL/PCL tear
Lachman test
Same as drawer test bu in 25 degrees of flexion to take out quadriceps out of equation
Positive recurvatum test means _
Arcuate ligament, popliteus and fibular collateral ligament damage
Positive McMurray test means _
Meniscus tear
Patellar grind test means_
-Chondromalacia of patella
-Palpable crepitation is positive
Positive Apley compression test means _
Meniscal tear
Positive Apley distraction test means _
Ligamentous strain
Plantar flexion of ankle ROM _
Dorsi flexion of ankle ROM
20 degrees
Anterior drawer test of ankle tests _
Integrity of anterior talofibular ligament
Varus test of ankle tests _
Lateral (talofibular) ligament
Valgus test of ankle tests_
Deltoid ligament
Flexion of neck ROM
Extension of neck ROM
Lateral flexion of neck ROM
Rotation of neck ROM
80 degrees
Main motion of occiput
Flexion - extension
Rotation and SB of occiput is to _
opposite sides
C2 C7 have what kind of motion
type II mechanics - SB and rotation to the same side
Right posterior occiput
-Translates better to the right
-Rotated right and SB left
-Right OA joint will not move anterior in extension
-Right OA has palpable tissue texture changes
Left anterior occiput
-Occiput is SB to left and rotated to right
-Left OA joint will not move posterior in flexion
-Left OA joint has palpable tissue texture changes
Occiput that is SB left and rotated right can be named _ or _
Posterior right or anterior left
Occiput that is SB right and rotated left can be named _ or _
Posterior left or anterior right
Describe C3 F SB and R to L
-Translation is free to right
-Translation right is equivalent to SB left
-Rotation is free to left
-TP is prominent of left
-Rotation and SB is free in flexion more then extension
Suboccipital-Thoracic connection
Suboccipital symptoms almost always connected to upper thoracic and rib dysfunctions. First treat upper thoracic region and retest - suboccipital symptoms should reduce
Cervical thoracic connection
Chronic cervical dysfunction is usually associated with sacral dysfunction
Benign cervical vertigo
Cervical spasms cause temporal bone assymetry which causes vestibular vertigo
Sequence of treatment of whiplash injury
Thoracics - suboccipital - neck
What innervates thumb
C6 (can get cervical root compression and loose feeling in that finger)
Osteophytes best seen on
oblique cervical Xrays