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23 Cards in this Set

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The phase of study that is concerned with the motion of the spine with no help from ligaments or muscles.
Kinematics
Anterior Aspect of Spine
Vertebral bodies
Intervertebral (IV) discs
Posterior Aspect of Spine
Lamina to the spinous processes
3D system of motion
Flexion
Extension
Side-bending right and left
Rotation right and left
What type of motion...
-The superior segment moves on the inferior segment, which causes the superior segment to move anteriorly and superiorly relative to the inferior segment.
Flexion
In what motion are the zygopophyseal joints left open?
Flexion
In what motion do...
-the superior segments move inferior on z-axis and posterior on x-axis
-superior segment moves more posterior towards us
Extension
In what motion are the zygopophyseal joints closed?
Extension
What motion...
-Superior segment translates to the R along x-axis and rotates to R along z-axis
Right side-bending
If we are R-sidebending what will be the status of the transverse process and the R/L zygopophyseal joints?
-Transverse processes: R TP will be more posterior
-L ZP: Open
-R ZP: Closed
Side bending is coupled with rotation.

If side-bend to the right...
rotation to the left
Side bent from neutral position vertebra rotated...
vertebra rotated to opposite side as sidebend
Sidebend from flexed/extended then vertebra rotated...
to same side as side bend
Law 1
When in the neutral position, then side-bending to one side is matched with rotation to the opposite side.

Load on vertebra, not facets
Law 2
When flexed or extended, then side-bending to one side is matched with rotation to the same side.

Load on facets
Law 3
When motion is introduced into the spinal segment in one direction, then the motion in other directions is reduced
Do the 3 laws of vertebral motion apply to the thoracic spine?
Yes
Do the 3 laws of vertebral motion apply to the lumbar region?
Yes
Do the 3 laws of vertebral motion apply to the cervical region?
-Facets are always engaged
-no type 1 motion because already loaded, only type 2.
Theories of causes of vertebral motion dysfunction
-Entrapment of synovial material
-Lack of congruence in the point-to-point contact of opposing joint surfaces.
-Alterations in the biomechanical & biochemical properties of the myofascial elements
-Chemical & physical properties of the synovial fluid & synovial surfaces
-Restricted motion due to the altering of the muscle lenght or tone.
Characteristics of Type I
-Neutral dysfunction
-a group of segments (3 or more)
-restriction of the group to side bending in one direction and rotation in the opposite
-facets not involved
-no difference in extension or flexion
Characteristics of Type II
-Non-neutral dysfunction
-single vertebral motion unit
-includes flexion or extension
-motion restriction of side-bending and rotation to the same side.
in what type is there something wrong w/ the facets?
Type II