Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
how many steps does a person take in a day?
how many lbs of pressure does a 150lb person transmit with a step.
what part of the foot receives 60-75% of the pressure?
the one square inch of the weight bearing heel
how many miles are a pair of shoes good for for running?
500-1000 miles
what is the term for flat foot?
pes planus; it can be congenital or acquired
describe the differences in the acquired vs. congenital pes planus.
CONGENITAL pes planus -the person has been flat footed since birth and the arch is usually rigid; you don't prescribe orthotics; ACQUIRED pes planus: the arch is normal when there is no weight and flat when weight was put on it (supple arch)
in pes planus describe the talar bone and what happens to shoes.
the talar head displaces medially and plantarward; the medial part of the shoe wears down
name the symptoms of pes planus.
pain over the spring ligament, pain or cramping in the tibialis anterior and tibialis posterior muscle
what would cause a spring ligament sprain?
running over uneven surfaces in soft shoes, everting the foot;
where is the pain located in a spring ligament sprain?
pain is over the calcaneonavicular potion of the spring ligament
the gap between the ____ and the ____ bones is supported by the tibialis posterior tendon and the spring ligament.
navicular and sustentaculum tali; as the talar head rotates it destroys the ligament
name the etiologies for pes planus.
genu varus; compensation for leg length inequality; external tibial torsion
when measuring the tibial torsion you evaluate it by using the _____.
thigh-foot axis
what is the normal thigh-foot axis?
external tibial torsion turns the foot _____. what degrees is the thigh-foot axis?
lateralward; >30degrees
how do you treat pes planus?
can't treat congenital pes planus; if the arch is rigid, you must first make it soft in order to use an orthotic device; orthotics should be flexible
the arch orthosis should ____ the foot when it is unloaded.
This orthotic is a medial heel wedge that is used in pes planus, it supports the medial longitudinal arch.
Thomas Heel
Name the different arches and what they are for.
Scaphoid Pad: insole support (weak muscles and plantar fascia); Thomas Heel (supports a valgus); medial Heel and sole wedges (for valgus)
Name the complications of pes planus.
tarsal tunnel syndrome; metatarsalgia, plantar fasciitis
Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome is entrapment of ___ nerve beneath the _____ ligament.
posterior tibial nerve beneath the Deltoid ligament
What does TTS feel like?
intense burning pain on the sole of the foot (causalgia)
How do you treat Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome?
correct the pes planus, arch orthotics, NSAIDs, local injection of corticosteriods, High dose Pyridoxine; lastly surgical decompression
name the term for excessively plantar flexed arch that is more common in women and exacerbated by wearing high heels.
pes cavus
in pes cavus the symptoms of what other type of arch are present?
pes planus
what usually develops in pes cavus?
hammer toes or claw toes; get splaying of the metatarsals and collapse of the transverse arch of the foot
why do the hammer and claw toes present?
the arch is congenitally high and its normal for the tendons; when the foot is unloaded and stretched, the tendons pull the toes back and create abnormalities
in a pt with pes cavus their transverse arch is so high that only what metatarsals generally bear the weight of the body in gait?
1st and 5th metatarsal
where is the transverse arch located?
directly behind the metatarsal heads
a dropped 2nd metatarsal head is associated with ___.
plantar callus
what is metatarsalgia and name some things that are associated with it.
pain that occurs in the metatarsal area; may be caused by splaying of the metatarsals, morton's neuroma, avascular necrosis, metatarsal stress fracture
in general all forms of metatarsalgia may benefit from what?
metatarsal bar - shifts some weight to the toes
_____ is the most common occurence of wearing high heels.
splaying of the metatarsals
how do you treat the splaying the metatarsals brought on by too much high heel wearing?
heel lift regression and using shoes with a narrower toe box
what is and how do you get a Morton's Neuroma?
it is a swelling of the digital branches of the plantar nerve with hypertrophy of the fibrous neural sheath; it occurs with repetitive microtrauma and compression from too narrow toe box (typically occurs b/w the 3 and 4th metatarsal
how do you treat a morton's neuroma?
you must correct the underlying problem and fix the abnormal foot mechanics and it will regress over time; may need special orthotics
Avascular Necrosis of the metatarsal head is also called ____ and is esp. prevalent in what population?
Freiberg Infarction; diabetics with impaired microcirculation
X-ray reveals ___ initially and later ____ in avascular necrosis.
osteosclerosis; followed by osteolysis
Treatment for avascular necrosis is what?
met. arch pad, bar, and no running or jumping for 6-12wks (don't know how this helps diabetics)
This classification is used to measure the fracture of a 5th metatarsal.
Jones Classification.
Describe the type I Jones fractures.
Type I: fracture line is well delineated; no sclerosis or periosteal rxn (tx: non-weight bearing cast or below knee boot for at least 6wks) healing may not be evident for at least 3 months
Describe a type II jOnes fracture.
Type II: fracture line is widened and sclerosis is evident; tx: non-surgical, takes longer to heal
Describe type III JF.
the widened fracture line is obliterated by sclerosis and/or periosteal rxn; there is presence of non-union; TX: surgical treatment is always required
Describe the symptoms of plantar fasciitis.
pain occurs on initial weight bearing upon arising from bed and goes away with use. it remains calm until increased activity like heavy walking, running, or fatigue.; very painful; exacerbated by hard surfaces
Name the physical findings in plantar fasciitis.
tenderness and swelling at the medial calcaneal tubercle; longitudinal arch collapse; Morton's Foot; May get a traction osteophyte - heel spur
plantar fasciitis causes _____ hypertonicity.
gastrocnemius hypertonicity
PF may be associated with the onset of what GI problem?
Crohn's Dz or Ulcerative Colitis
Name some treatments for plantar fasciitis.
correct the arch collapse, heel cushion, OMT (plantar fascia, arch springing); stretching, NSAIDs, corticosteriods, last resort: surgical excision of the heel spur
where is the cuboid located?
on the lateral side of the foot behind the styloid process of the 5th metatarsal.
what tendon runs over the cuboid and goes under the foot and connects to the medial cuneiform bone all the way on the medial side of the foot?
the fibularis longus tendon
What tendon attaches to the styloid process of the 5th metatarsal?
fibularis brevis tendon and is called the major everter of the foot
what causes cuboid syndrome?
inverted ankle sprain, stretches the fibularis longus and sends pain up the lateral leg
what OMT tx can you use in cuboid syndrome?
Cuboid Modification of the Hiss Whip Technique
what is the term to describe osteoarthritis with bone spurring on the dorsal surface of the 1st metatarsal? what problems does it cause?
hallux rigidus; prevents normal toe off in normal gait; causes pain when going uphill or on uneven ground
person ends up not using his/her 1st toe while walking. what is the tx for hallux rigidus?
Modify the shoe (Rocker Sole); OMT (toe technique); Surgery (Keller Procedure and Arthrodesis)
what is a bunion?
a hallus valgus where the 1st metatarsal sticks out; cause traumatic bursae to form and often see a pronated foot (everted); probably a congenital predisposition that is exacerbated by tight shoes
where are the sesamoid bones located and what happens when they are inflamed?
2 sesamoid bones are under the 1st metatarsal bones; if a pt has sesamoidiis the pt will avoid using the big toe when walking
name a common joint that is subluxated in ballet dancers.
subtalar joint aka talocalcaneal joint
what happens if you don't tx a subtalar joint subluxation with DMR or a hiss whip technique?
untx leads to achilles tendinitis
describe the symptoms, physical findings, and diagnosis in a calcaneal stress fracture.
symptoms: pain in the heel; PE: pain on lateral compression of the calcaneus; DX: MRI or Radionuclide Bone Scan
what is bursitis and what is it caused by?
it is a retrocalcaneal inflammed bursae caused by repetitive microtrauma usually caused by ill-fitting shoes; aka Haglund Deformity or Pump Bump
name the term that describes a painful swollen achilles tendon esp. at its attachment to the calcaneous.
achilles tendinitis (may be a side-effect of quinolone antibiotic tx)
Name the symptoms, etiology and incidence of the achilles tendon rupture.
symptoms: inability to plantar flex foot and can't stand on ball of foot; ETIOLOGY: sharp blow to taut tendon or landing hard on the ball of the foot; INCIDENCE: males age 30-55
How do you dx a ruptured achilles tendon?
The Thompson Test
how do you check that the vasculature has not been compromised?
check pulses of the Posterior tibial artery, Dorsal Pedal A, and blanch the nail beds
what can you do for someone with arterial insufficiency?
treat the sympathetics in the lower thoracic and lumbar levels (T10-L2)