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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name the muscles that are active on respiration?
Intercostals and scalenes
Para or Sympa controls lymph?
Sympa
Name the origins of the hearts sympa?
T 1-6
Which side (Right or left) sympathetic fibers innervate the SA node?
Right
Supraventricular tachycardia can be caused by which side of sympa innervation to heart?
Right side (innervates SA node)
Sympathetic fibers from which side innervated AV node?
Left
Hyperactivity of Left side sympathetic innervation to the heart would cuase?
Ventricular tachycardia
Do sympathetic nerves cuase brochodilaton or constriction?
Dilation
In the thorax, what parts above the diaphragm are innervated by sympathetic?
Everything
By how much can abnormal gait (i.e. Scoliosis) increase cardiac work?
300%
Sympathetic fibers from which side innervate AV node?
Left
Hyperactivity of Left side sympathetic innervation to the heart would cuase?
Ventricular tachycardia
Do sympathetic nerves cuase brochodilaton or constriction?
Dilation
In the thorax, what parts above the diaphragm are innervated by sympathetic?
Everything
By how much can abnormal gait (i.e. Scoliosis) increase cardiac work?
300%
How do sympa's affect devel of collateral circulation?
Inhibit
Do veins respond to sympa?
Yes, but weaker
What parts does the right lymphatic duct drain?
Heart lungs liver right upper limb and head and neck
What parts drain to left lymphatic duct?
everything but heart, lunds, liver r upper limb and head and neck
What symptoms suggest viscerosomatic/somatovisceral dysfunction
tenderness, hyperirritability, tt changes, increased tension or limited motion.
What are Chapman's reflexes?
Reflexes that follow a predictable pattern associated w/ visceral probs
General effect of Beta Blockers?
Attenuates sympathetic input
General effect of diuretics?
Lower blood volume
General effect of ACE inhibitors?
Arteriolar and venodilation
General effect of Calcium Channel Blockers?
Smooth muscle relaxant
How does stable angina present?
Develops on exertion and relieved by rest.
How does unstable angina present?
Unexpected, occurs at rest, last longer (30+ minutes).
How to treat stable angina?
Rest or nitroglycerin
Which form of angina is due to focal coronary artery vasospasm?
Prinzmetal
What is the hallmark ecg of prinzmetal?
S-T elevation
Name the syndrome associated w/ redness, swelling, pain @ costovertebral junction?
Teitze's Syndrome
What are the 3 WHO criteria for MI? (only need to have to for MI diag)
Clinical history of ischemic-type chest discomfot
Changes on serial ECG
Elevation of cardiac enzymes
What are the palpatory findings for cardiac viscerosomatic probs?
acute, warm, boggy, edematous, T1-T5 Left
What is the sympathetic response to MI (i.e. coronary thrombosis)
Increases
At what vertebral levels would you find palpable changes for cardiac probs with ventricular involvment?
C8-T3
At what vertebral levels would you find palpable changes for cardiac probs with atrial involvement?
T4-6
At what vertebral levels would you find palpable changes for cardiac probs with anterior infact?
T2-3 Left side
At what vertebral levels would you find palpable changes for cardiac probs with inferior wall?
T3-5 left, C2
What does OA release do to Vagus?
Increases vagal output.
Where are posterior chapman's point for hypertension?
Between transverse processes of T11 and T12
What is CHF?
heart can't pump all the blood out that's coming in.
What are your tx goals for CHF?
improve venous return, improve lymphatic return, decrease abdominal workload due to structural problems and improve thoracic cage compliance
What are ways to improve lymph flow?
Work diaphragm, pectoralis lift, lympatic pump.
What is the name of the pivot point where ribs meed spine and does it suffer strain in CABG?
Costotransverse junction and no.
What happens to the rib heads in CABG in relation to the vertebral bodies?
The heads are compressed into the vertebral bodies and that causes strain.
What are the typical ribs?
3-9
Why is rib 1 atypical?
No rib angle and articulates w/ only T1
Why is rib 2 atypical?
Has large tuberosities for serratus anterior
Why is rib 10 atypical?
Becuase it attaches only to T10
Why are 11 and 12 atypical?
Articulate only w/ T11 and T12 AND they are floating
What nerve provides motor and sensory to diaphragm?
Phrenic
What muscles used in Forced inhilation?
Sternocliedomastoid (Spinal Accessory)
Scalenes (Ventral rami C3-8)
Serratus anterior (Long Thoracic)
External intercostals (Ventral rami thoracic spinal nerves)
Muscles used in forced exhalation?
Rectus Abdominus (Lower 6 thoracic and 1st lumbar segmental nerves)
Internal intercostals (ventral rami thoracic spinal nerves)
When you breath with your neck you may have which syndrome?
Thoracic outlet
When you breath with your back you have?
Extreme acute fatique
What are the three steps outlined in lecture for stimulus of inhalation?
1. Collapsed alveoli - visceral afferents
2. Respiratory Center notified (Nucleus Solitarius)
3. Reflex arc to phrenic and intercostal nerves
Key rib in inhalation dysfunction?
Bottom rib - painful exhalation
Key rib in exhalation dysfunciton?
Top rib - painful inhalation