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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
2 types of body cavities
Dorsal body cavity and ventral body cavity
what parts are the dorsal body cavity divided into
the cranial cavity where head is located and the vertebral cavity where the spinal cord is located
what does the dorsal cavity protect?
the fragile nervous system organs, cranial encases the brain and encloses spinal cord
what are the subdivisions of ventral body cavity?
the thoracic cavity adn the abdominopelvic cavity
What does the ventral body cavity protect?
the internal organs
What is the thoracic cavity divided up into?
Lateral pleural cavities and the medial mediastenum.
What do the pleural cavities hold
the lungs
what is the mediastenum
It contains the pericardial cavity which encloses the heart.
what is the abdominopelvic cavity
a cavity which has a superior portion, the abdominal cavity and an inferior portion the pelvic cavity.
What does the abdominal cavity hold?
the stomach intestines spleen liver
What does the pelvic cavity hold
the bladder and some reproductive organs and the rectum
What does the diaphram separate
the abdominal and pelvic cavities
matter
gas liquic solid something tangible, has mass takes up space
energy
no mass, no space taken up, but has capacity to do work and to put matter into motion
Two types of energy
potential and kinetic
at is potential energy
stored energy that has capability to do work but is not presently doing so
what is kinetic energy
the energy of motion heat
what are the 4 forms of energy
chemical energy, electical energy, mechanical energy, radiant energy
what is chemical energy
energy that is stored in chemical bonds, released when bonds are broken
what is electrical energy
energy associated with movement of charged particals
what is mechanical energy
energy directly involved in moving matter
what is radiant energy
energy that travels in waves, light, xrays infared
what are elements
all matter is composed of elements, they are substances that can not be broken down into simpler by orginary chemical methods
what 4 elements comprise 96% of body weigth
carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen
what are atoms
smallest unit of an element,
has nucleus-proton and neutron
and electrons which are 1/1000 size of proton.
whats an isotope
same number of protons and electrons but different number of neutrons
whats a planetary model
views atoms like solar system
what is orbital model
pictures atoms like clouds
whats inert?
means valence shell is completely complete
whats an ionic bond
its a bond made form the complete transfer of electrons from one atom to another, this generates ions.
whats a covelant bond
a bond made from the sharing of electrons b/w two or more atoms
What are the two types of covelant bond
polar covelant-unequal share of electrons
nonpolar- equal share of electrons
what is a hydrogen bond
a weak bond formed from a hydrogen and a hydrogen already covelantly bonded to an electronegative element like oxygen or nitrogen
what is biochemistry
the study of molecules contributing to life
all chemicals in the body fall into what two categories
organic- containing carbon
inorganic-all other chemicas in body
what percentage does water make up in living things?
60-80%
What are the properties of water?
1. high heat capacity
2. high heat of vaporization
3. polar solvent properties
4. reactivity
5. cushioning
what is high heat capacity?
how much heat you must add to raise temp one degree, water has a high one, and this prevents sudden changes in temp caused by external factors.
what is high heat of vaporization
the high heat required to make water evaporate, this is beneficial when we sweat given it removes large amt of heat from body as it evaporates.
what are the polar solvent properties of water
water is a very good solvent b/c it has regions of pos and neg charge
good solvent for polar or charged molecules
serves as a transport medium (carries nutrients adn wastes)
what about waters reactivity
its involved in many chemical reactions
what are the properties of carbon
has 4 electrons
strong tendency for covelant bonds
can form bonds w/ 4 other atoms
What are carbohydrates?
group of molecules that include sugar and starches.
- contain C H O in about a 1:2:1 ratio
What are 3 types of carbohydrates
Monosaccrides- linear or rings 3-7
Disacchride- two monosacc linked (sucrose lactose, maltose)
polysacchride- long polymers, mult monosachh joined (glycogen, starch) its major function is energy
What are lipids?
organic molecules that are insoluble in water
-nonpolar
- defined by solubility
-contain c-h-o: oxygen in much lower level
What are neutral fats
a fat composed of two types of building blocks, fatty acids, and glycerol.
-triglycerides (fats and oils)
Whats a saturated fat
fatty acid chains with onlhy single covelant bonds between carbon atoms.
whats an unsaturated fat?
fatty acids that contain one or more double bonds b/w carbon atoms.
-energy source, functions are to insulate and protect
what is a fatty acid?
linear chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms with an organic acid group
steriod?
flat molecules made of four interlocking hydrocarbon rings.
0fat soluble adn contain little oxygen
- a lipid
whata re the types of steroids
cholesterol, sex horms, estrogen testosterone, biles asalts vitamin d
what is cholesterol
a steroid, , most imp molecule in steroid chemistry
very imp, forms cell membrane
what is a protein
long polymer of amino acids
=enzymes, hemoglobin, ect..
-all contain carbon oxygen hydrogen and nitrogen