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56 Cards in this Set

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urban growth
a city or town that has 2,500 people in it ormore.

countires urbanization is teh % of its poputalin living in urban areas

urban growth is the rate of incrase of urban populations

some countire set ithe minimum to 10,000 to 50,000
urbanziation
percentage of country’s population living in urban areas

E. The percentage of people living in urban areas is increasing very rapidly. In 1860 – 2%, in 1996 – 43%. UN prediction for 2025 – 61% (world population)

1. The percentage of large cities, 1 million + is increasing from 1960 (111) to present (400)
Mega-Cities
10 million or more

increasing at %19
urbanization in countires
3. 3rd world countries are growing rapidly with 3.5% growth rates that should reach 54% urbanization by 2025 with fairly poor health conditions

F. Developed countries have a much slower growth rate of 1% a year, but should still reach 82% urbanization by 2025

G. Poverty is becoming increasingly urbanized when over 1 billion people live in shanty towns etc.
3 generalized models of urban development
1. Concentric circle – city develops in a series of rings from its central business district (CBD). Typically outside the CBD are industries/businesses, then housing zones that are more affluent towards the suburbs. E.g. New York City
2. Sector model – grows in pie shape wedges or strips and growth sectors of commercial, industrial and residential areas pushed outwards, e.g. San Francisco
3. Multiple nuclei model – develops around a number of independent centers, or satellite cities rather than a single center, e.g. Los Angeles (Raleigh is most likely a multiple nuclei city)
urban sprawl = megalopolis
spreading of urban areas

Megatrapolis: as cities spread outward they can merge to form megalopolis centers, for e.g. the Bowash (Boston – Washington) or Chipitts (Chicago – Pittsburgh)
Problems and Benefits of Urbanization
A. Environmental problems associated with urbanization are poverty and troubles with quick economic growth
B. However, urbanization has some advantages such as recycling programs, lower birth rates, better education and more per capita spent on environmental expenditures
C. Also by concentrating human population to 5% of the Earth, this reduces loss of biodiversity
D. However large areas of land are needed to support the city; Remember – cities are not self serving
1. 43% of the world’s population lives in cities on 5% of the land, but still disturbs 73% of the earth
E. The higher the per capita income, the higher the resource use, the higher the environmental and pollution problems on a global scale such as ozone effects and greenhouse gases
2 major categories of urban areas
A. Linear metabolism – city with a high waste society
B. Circular metabolism – city with a recycling society more of sustainable concept
Urban Resources; Food production and trees
A. Cities have a tendency of having little or few trees: trees could absorb air pollutants, give off Oxygen, cool air with transpiration, muffle noise, provide habitats, wind resistance, and they’re aesthetically pleasing.
B. Besides these cities provide little of their own food: this could be altered if space was used efficiently by using roof and balcony planters, not to mention unused community plots.
C. Farmers markets can also encourage farmers to sell directly to the consumer; lower prices, more profit.
Urban Resources; Water supply and Problems
A. Draws massive water (limiting rural and underground supplies).
B. Pollution problems created downstream from fertilizers, oils, salt, and toxic liquids from storm drains, and precipitation.
C. No infiltration to renew groundwater supplies, lots of impervious surfaces (concrete, etc.)
D. Built on flood plains; experience frequent floods.
E. Coast towns in danger of flooding (greenhouse gasses raise the ocean level.)
Urban areas; Air and Water pollution
A. Urban areas have a higher concentration of pollutants than rural areas.
B. Smog and air pollution is almost unavoidable; smoky factories burning wood, charcoal and coal.
C. In developing countries, lenient pollution laws, lack of enforcement, corrupt conditions, and shortage of funds has increased air pollution to where 1 out of 5 people experience dangerous pollution problems (Mexico City).
D. Developed countries have made controls and kept some pollution from rising but as we continue to grow, it leads to rising air pollution.
E. Water purification and treatment is in fairly strict control in developed countries. However, it is an extremely costly process and will not be able to support our growing population.
F. Developing countries are far worse off where 70% if sewage is directly dumped into rivers and fresh water sources.
G. Algae blooms (boom and bust cycle). No more dissolved oxygen in water.
H. Diseases harmful to humans
1. Parasites
2. Toxicology form heavy metals (from sewage).
I. From pesticides on food.
cities = microclimates
A. Cities tend to have their own microclimates
B. One way they are established is by urban heat islands created by heat given off by urban sources that rises and keeps a bubble of warm air surrounded by the denser cool air above it.
C. This also traps dust particles and pollutants in the heat island creating a dust dome at the top as the warm air pushes up but can not penetrate the cool air.
D. If winds increase, which is difficult in cities, the dome can elongate into a dust plume which spreads pollutants for miles. Miles I tell you!
E. Avoid this by planting trees, building with reflective materials (ex: shiny glitter-like stuff you see on the road/concrete every now and then), addinglight sand to roads, and establishing better energy efficiency.
Urban Resources; Noise Pollution
A. Nearly 50% of urban residents are exposed to noise pollution that is harmful or impairs hearing, creats stress, reduces work efficiency, or causes accidents. It is the most widespread occupational hazard (That’ll prob. be a test question.)
B. Harmful effects include hearing loss, high blood pressure, muscle tension, migraines, head aches, high cholesterol, gastric ulcers, irritability, insomnia, psychological disorders, and aggression.
C. Sound is measured in decibal-a units. Damaging at 75. 8 hours at 85 = permanent damage, painful at 120, kills at 180.
D. It is a logarithmic scale so thus a raise in 10 is a 10 fold increase, a raise in 30 dba is a 1000 fold increase.
E. Solutions to Noise pollution
1. Modify activities/devices to lower hazard exposure.
2. Shield noise devices or processes.
3. Shield workers or receivers from noise (Ear plugs, etc.)
4. Move
5. Use anti-noise devices (not sure if he means like padded surfaces)’
Urban Growth affect on nearby land
A. Urban Sprawl: as Urban lands expand they swallow up nearby farm and rural land that is needed to supply the city
B. As the farm lands get farther from the city, more transportation costs, pollutants.
C. As land values near urban areas rise, taxes on those nearby farm lands increase and many farmers are forced to sell off their land rather than raise crops/livestock.
D. Also local roads, services, and sanitation are overwhelmed as the population is increased.
E. High taxes for public services, decreased environmental quality, and rising prices force old members out and even new members which may for a short period escape inner city problems soon face positive feedback loops, harmful effects of urbanization.
Individual transit = problems
1. 89% of cars/trucks in developed countries, 8% of world’s pop. Own a car.
2. In the US, cars represent power, excitement, social status, success.
3. Our economy is built on the automotive industry. _ of every dollar is connected to cars and 1/6 of non-farm jobs are connected to cars.
4. With all these cars comes huge environmental and social health risks. More Americans have been killed in autos than all of this country’s wars. 42k a year, 5 million injured.
5. Cars are also the largest source of air pollution: 22% of Carbon Dioxide Emissions. Even though emission standards are strict and fuel efficiency has increased the increases in the population, commutes, and cars have offset those gains.
6. In the US, more land is used for autos than housing.
7. Many car culture sections praise the mobility of the car yet US citizens spend an average of 2 years stuck in traffic. The US looses $100 billion in the economy because workers were stuck in traffic.
8. Building more roads is not always the answer; we will expand available concrete. US traffic will triple in 15 years even with a 20% road increase.
individual transit = solutions
C. One way to break this positive feedback loop is to make drivers pay directly for most of the true costs of automobile use (taxing gas and phasing out government subsidies user-pays approach)

negative feedback loop might take place
BIKES!
A. Inexpensive, no pollution, very rarely cause injury.
B. In urban traffic move, move about the same speeds and with bike lanes a bike is faster if the trip is shorter than 5 miles.
C. Many governments give subsidies to those biking to work.
D. Actual studies show if CBDs are closed to cars, there is a 25% increase in sales.
E. For longer trips, secure bike parking lots at mass transit stations and busses can be equipped with bike racks.
F. Biking is starting to catch on in the US but it is difficult; 20% of people might bike if bike lanes existed and showers were available at work.
1. There are some reverse trends in developing countries; being banned in some areas as not to discourage rich businesses.
Mass Transit = problems
A. In the US, mass transit accounts for 8% of all passenger travel; 15% in Germany, 47% in Japan.
B. Another problem is that only 10% of commuting employers pay for parking (mainly because businesses can deduct the cost of parking from their taxes).
Rail Systems
1. Rapid rail = such as metros, subways that have exclusive tracks.
2. Suburban or regional trains = which connect the central city with surrounding areas or provide transportation between major cities.
3. Light Rail = systems which are trollys or trams that run with traffic or that can be exclusive.
Pros and Cons of Rail Systems
PRO: Much more energy efficient, produce fewer pollution, less injuries, uses less land.

CON:
1. Stations must be easy to reach in high-density population places.
2. if share freight lines then it can’t operate at night
3. In the US, light rail systems are catching on and 21 cities have successful systems where 43% of the residents commute by Bus/light rail. (Improves air quality.)
Super Trains/bullet trains
D. There is a new generation of super trains or bullet trains that can at low pollution speed large amounts of people at 200 mph for trips of 120 – 620 miles (Anything lower = not worth it, anything higher = use a plane). Starting in Japan, they have spread throughout Europe but we have lagged behind even though it would only take moderate costs to upgrade existing tracks. However, we are struck with the influence of the automobile industry
Maglev
type of train is the Maglev (Magnetic Levitation): powerful super conducting electromagnets suspend the train on a cushion of air at 250+ mph; little noise, little maintenance, can be built above existing roads; however, no operating Maglev trains currently exist and there are questions concerning electromagnetic radiation (i.e. like that from high voltage power lines)
Bus Systems
A. cheap and flexible, great for growing cities
B. however, in order to attract customers; companies are forced to lower rates to compete and thus cutting profit which leads to a cut in maintenance or even turn to government subsides
C. possible solution is exclusive bus lanes
what type of agriculture is most characteristic of developing countries?
TRADITIONAL SUBSTANCE AGRICULTURE.
Half of the calories that humans consume from a combination of all the following except:
SOYBEAN (wheat, corn, rice)
the plants of the second green revolution are all of the following except
TALL VARIETIES (fast growing, high yield,)
growing several different crops on a plot of land is called
INTERPLANTING
growing several different varieties of the same crop in fields is called
PLOYVARIETAL CULTIVATION
growing trees and crops together is called
AGROFORESTRY or ALLEYCROP
the term malnutrition refers t people who
SUFFER FROM POOR FOOD QUALITY
administration of __________ will prevent the majority of blindness in developing countries in the world
vitamin a
salmon and shad are examples of __________ fish that can go from fresh water to salt water in their lifetimes.
ANDRONOMOUS
how is crude birth rate determined?
BIRTH/1000
2. assuming that the birth rate is 40 and the death rate is 5 and infant mortality is 3 for Africa, what would the annual rate of natural population change be?
3.5%

brith rate - dath rate (divided by 10)
3. an estimate of the average number of children will have during her childbearing years, under current age specific birth rates is the
TOTAL FERTILITY RATE
4. which of the following is false
AS INFANT MORTALITY RATE GO DOWN BIRTH RATES WILL GO UP
5. infant mortality rate is determined by
DIE BY 1st BDAY/ 1000 BORN
6. what other factor will also increase a nations population?
HIGHER IMMIGRATION RATE
7. considering population age structure diagrams, which will have the largest potential for growth
ONE WITH A BROAD BASE
8. age structure diagrams
ARE USEFUL FOR COMPARING ONE POPULATION WITH ANOTHER
9. in the demographic transition model, ZPG in a country is likely to occur during what stage?
POST INDUSTRIAL
10. land use planning is not widely used because
IT IS DIFFICULT TO GET DIFFERENT JURISDICTIONS TO AGREE ON LAND USE PLANNING
11. which of the following is not one of the three types of new towns?
SUBURBAN TOWNS
12. all of the following strategies would make existing cities and suburbs more sustainable except
ZONING MORE LOW DENSITY HOUSING WITH BIG YARDS
1. which of the following categories includes all of the others?
PESTICIDES
2. the ideal pesticide
WOULD KILL ONLY THE TARGET PEST
3. the most serious drawback to using chemicals to control pests is
DEVELOPMENT OF GENETIC RESISTANCE
4. term used to describe the positive feedback loop concept of when more frequent doses of a pesticide must be used as well as stronger doses and often new chemical usage is called
PESTICIDE TREADMILL
5. according to the US Department of Agriculture, no more than __% of the insecticides applied to crops by aerial spraying reach the target pests =
2
6. in biological magnification
ORGANISMS AT HIGHER TROPHIC LEVELS HAVE MORE CONCENTRATED LEVELS OF TOXIC SUBSTANCES
7. which of the following is false?
FDA INSPECTORS CHECK HALF OF DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED FOOD FOR PESTICIDE CONTAMINATION
8. which of the following approaches would be the least beneficial in trying to reduce the insect damage?
PLANTING MONOCULTURES
9. all of the following are advantages of biological control except that it
REQUIRES LITTLE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
10. insect control by sterilization involves irradiating
MALES
11. a pheromone is
A SPECIES SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SEX ATTRACTANT
12. the pest management program that uses chemical, ecological, agricultural, and biological methods is called
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT