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86 Cards in this Set

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Oedipus ruled over ______
Thebes
dramatic irony
when the audience understands the irony but the character has not realized it
Approximately when was cuneiform discovered or invented?
3000 BCE
Why does Tiresias refuse to help Odysseus?
He doesn't want him to know that the murderer is he himself, Oedipus
What does the name Oedipus mean?
swollen ankles
Why does Oedipus want Creon dead when he believes him [Creon] to be conspiring to kill him?
1) Because Creon is his only threat
2) He wants to show his power over the people
What was Jocasta's motive to marry Oedipus?
To remain queen, to keep things as they were before he came along
When does Jocasta first get a clue that Oedipus is who he is?
When he describes killing a man (Laius) on the highway
What and who do the lines "The tyrant is a child of Pride/Who drinks from his sickening ego" describe?
Oedipus, and the problems of being a leader: vanity, recklessness, and pride
When does Jocasta realize her son Oedipus is alive?
When the Messenger says that he is the one who saved Oedipus from his death
Why is the shepherd reluctant to tell what he knows?
He realizes that he hasn't done the job properly [killed off the baby as he was instructed] and that it might be his fault
What is the symbolic retribution in the story?
the irony of Oedipus's blindness: when he had sight, he had no knowledge; when he became blind, he gained insight
How does Creon approach Oedipus at the end of the play?
He comes with concern yet also authority
Protagonist
main character that goes through the most change
Hamartia
tragic flaw of the hero; error in judgment
Catharsis
the arousing of specific emotions of pity and fear as to dispel or purge them in the spectator
Hubris
exaggerated pride or self-confidence
_____ is the soul of tragedy
Plot
A well made play, unlike the Matrix does not need _____
gore and action
Why is Creon the foil character in the play of Oedipus?
Because he clearly contrasts with Oedipus in personality; Creon is calm and collected, while Oedipus is angry and raging, and causes his destruction
How is Oedipus's patriarchal role seen in this play?
He opens the play saying to his people "My children" and asks them to come to HIM instead of the gods
What is the Role of Choragos?
acts as an advisor to Oedipus and a representative of the chorus
What is dramatic irony in a tragedy?
when the audience recognizes the reversal
At the end of a tragedy, what happens?
order is restored
Ideal plot takes place in how much time?
no more than one or two days; unity of time/place/action
Climax combines what two elements?
ironic reversal and discovery
Tragic hero is destined for tragedy, but also for _____
greatness. (fate)
Tragic flaw
error in judgment
Hubris
the arrogance of one who believes he/she can alter fate and defy gods
Foil character
has many of same qualities as main character, but through differences we understand flaws of proatgonist
Uruk
city-state where Gilgamesh ruled
archetype
model; pattern for later characters
2/3, 1/3
Gilgamesh is 2/3 god, 1/3 human; meaning he CAN die
Enkidu
man created by the gods to destroy Gilgamesh, but befriends him
The journey Gilgamesh makes
he wants to find immortality because he fears death
How is Noah different from Utnapishtim?
Noah is righteous, follows the lord, while Utnapishtim is afraid of his gods
The characters in tragedies are usually ____ (relating to morals)
in between; neither extremely good or evil
What are some of Gilgamesh's flaws?
arrogance, defying gods, overstepping bounds as a ruler, afraid of death
Epic hero
epic's larger-than-life main character whose mighty deeds reflect the values admired by the society that created the epic
Gilgamesh is an _____
archetype
Epic heroes are unlike gods because...
they possess human weaknesses and can die
The Epic of Gilgamesh was probably composed around... (time period)
2000 BCE
What does Gilgamesh do to anger the gods?
He rejects Ishtar and insults the gods
What do the gods do in revenge of Gilgamesh's defiant actions?
send a fatal illness to Enkidu
What does Gilgamesh accept at the end of his journey?
that he is a mortal, and he will die
How are the Gilgamesh's gods different from Noah's god (Yahweh)?
Gilgamesh's gods are arbitrary and possess human qualities; Yahweh is rational and awe-inspiring
Why did Yahweh decide to send a flood as opposed to the Sumerian gods?
Yahweh wanted to rid the world of the wickedness, whereas the Sumerian gods were irritated by the people's clamor
Utnapishtim
survived the flood; is immortal but not a god
What is the difference between an epic hero and tragic hero?
Epic hero makes a journey that is the plot of the story, tragic hero doesn't necessarily
Approximately how many years ago did writing begin?
5000 years ago
What are some similarities in the Genesis story and Utnapishtim's flood?
how to build a boat, washes away everything, uses birds
How does Utnapishtim's flood differ from Noah's?
Utnapishtim's is a more violent flood, length of the flood, dove of peace
What is the lesson of Gilgamesh's journey?
live life to the fullest, because there is no point chasing immortality
Tragic play should evoke _____
catharsis
Why did Yahweh decide to send a flood as opposed to the Sumerian gods?
Yahweh wanted to rid the world of the wickedness, whereas the Sumerian gods were irritated by the people's clamor
Utnapishtim
survived the flood; is immortal but not a god
What is the difference between an epic hero and tragic hero?
Epic hero succeeds and makes a journey; the tragic hero doesn't succeed
Approximately how many years ago did writing begin?
5000 years ago
What are some similarities in the Genesis story and Utnapishtim's flood?
how to build a boat, washes away everything, uses birds
How does Utnapishtim's flood differ from Noah's?
Utnapishtim's is a more violent flood, length of the flood, dove of peace
What is the lesson of Gilgamesh's journey?
live life to the fullest, because there is no point chasing immortality
Tragic play should evoke _____
catharsis
"My children, why have you strewn yourselves in front of altars in prayer? Children, I would not have you speak through messengers. Therefore I have come myself to hear you, I, Oedipus, who bear the famous name."

How does Oedipus seem by making this statement?
patriarchal, arrogant, pompous, thinks of himself as the Great Leader, father figure
Role of the priest
casts a shadow of doubt upon Oedipus, saying that they know he isn't a god but need his help anyways
Creon: The god commands us to expel from the land of Thebes an old defilement we are sheltering... by exile or death, blood for blood.

Oedipus: I know; I learned of him from others, I never saw him.
dramatic irony: the defilement is Oedipus

Oedipus did see him, he killed him--subconsciously knows it
Creon: He said that a band of highwaymen attacked him.

Oedipus: Strange that a highwayman should be so daring.
Oedipus says the singular form of the word, so subconsciously he remembers the killing of Laius
Oedipus: Whoever killed Laius may decide to kill me as well.
dramatic irony: he is the murderer
Teiresias: You were a great man once at solving riddles.

What is he referring to?
he refers to solving the riddle of the sphinx; he is ironically mocking Oedipus
Creon: Men of Thebes, I am told that heavy accusations have been brought against me by King Oedipus.

What is he referring to?
Oedipus's outbursts that Creon is conspiring to kill him and take over the throne
Why is Creon admirable in his speech that he explains to Odysseus?
he calmly tells Oedipus that he is happy as he is, with power but not the responsibility
Oedipus: How strange a shadowy memory crossed my mind. Just now while you were speaking; it chilled my heart.

What does Oedipus remember from Jocasta's story that chills his heart?
he remembers the swollen ankles and the highways bit
Oedipus: I killed him. I killed them all. Now if that stranger were Laius--and kin, where is a man more miserable than I?... What does Oedipus realize here?
that he may have killed Laius
Why does Jocasta want the questioning (in which Oedipus wants to solve the riddle of Laius's death) to end?
she has realized that Oedipus is her son
What does Oedipus assume about Jocasta when he says "Let us leave this woman to brag of her royal name"?
he thinks that she wants to end the conversation because she is ashamed of his "low birth"
Shepherd: "For if you are what this man says you are, no man living is more wretched than Oedipus."
Oedipus realizes that his mother is his wife and that he has killed his father; unraveling of the plot--DENOUEMENT
What does Creon represent in the play?
the need for an orderly, stable society
How does Creon differ from Oedipus?
he is a master of manipulation, whereas Oedipus is frank and open
When do we realize that Creon really does want the throne?
at the end of the play, when Creon demonstrates his eagerness to exile Oedipus and separate him from his children
What is the importance of the chorus?
it reacts to the events in a predictable, but not necessarily consistent manner
Why does Oedipus stab his eyes as opposed to committing suicide?
by becoming blind he inflicting more pain than he can by killing himself
Eyesight and vision are metaphors for...
knowledge and insight
"Men of Thebes: Look upon Oedipus. Let every man in mankind's frailty consider his last day; and let none presume on his good fortune until he find life, at his death, a memory without pain."

What is the moral?
moral: fate is in the hands of the gods
What is Noah's relationship to his god opposed to Utnapishtim's?
Noah follows in the footsteps of his lord, and is almost an equal, walks in respect; Utnapishtim complies with whatever the gods say almost in fear.
Epic of Gilgamesh was written down by Babylonians in...
1300 BCE
Who came up with cuneiform?
Sumerians
What did the Babylonians do in relation to Gilgamesh?
they wrote down the epic