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246 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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EOMs that have origins @ the CTR (common tendinous ring)
(all rectus muscles)
SR, IR, LR, MR
EOM(s) w/ origin on greater wing of sphenoid
LR (also has origin on CTR)
EOM with origin on lesser wing of sphenoid bone?
IO
EOM whose origin in anterior to the globe
IO
Origin of inferior oblique
maxillary bone
Innervation of EOMs
LR6 SO4 all others 3
EOMs
SR IO
1 1
LR 1-----1 MR (nose)
1 1
IR 1 1 SO
What passes through the foramin rotundum of the sphenoid bone?
V2 (maxillary division of trigeminal n.)
What passes thru the foramen ovale?
V3 and lesser superficial petrosal n.
what part of the sphenoid bone does the midle meningeal artery pass thru?
foramen spinosum
compression of the optic chiasm causes what type of field defect?
bitemporal hemianopsia
Which cranial n.(s) pass thru the SOF and the CTR
nasociliary n.
oculomotor n.
abducens n.
"NOA"
What passes thru the SOF and above the CTR
superior ophthalmic vein
frontal n.
trochlear n.
lacrimal n.
What passes thru the SOF and below the CTR
inferior ophthalmic vein
only one item "passes below"
What passes thru the optic canal
optic n.
ophthalmic artery
what passes thru the carotid canal?
ICA (internal carotid artery)

sympathetic plexus
what passes thru the supraobital foramen
supraorbital nerve & vessels
n. & vessels
What passes thru the infraorbital forman?
infraorbital n. & vessels
n. & vessels
What passes thru the mandibular foramen?
inferior alveolar n. & vessel
Where is the stylomastoid foramen located?
ant. to the ear
Which foramen does the facial n. (CN7) pass thru?
stylomastoid foramen
What is the weakest portion of the orbit?
Floor
Which bones make up the floor of the orbit?
Maxillary bone
Zygomatic bone
palatine bone
"My pal gets Z's on the floor"
What is the thinnest portion of the orbit?
medial wall
What is the thickest portion of the orbit?
lateral wall
Which n. can be damaged by a fracture of the inferior orbital wall?
infraorbital n.
passes thru the infraorbital foramen
terminal branch of the external carotid artery
superficial temporal artery
What branch of the facial a. provides the blood supply for the medial canthus?
angular a.
What are the branches of the ECA?
lingual a.
facial a.
maxillary a.
superficial temporal a.
Which a. supplies the orbicularis m.
zygomatic branch of the superficial temporal a.
3 branches of the aortic arch
left subclavian a.
left common carotid a.
brachiocephalic a.
Which arteries supply the optic disc?
SPCAs (Circle of Zinn)
CRA?
First branch of the ICA
Ophthalmic a.
Course of the ICA?
transverses thru the sinus w/ CN6@ its side with CN2 lateral and CN3 medial.
What provides the blood supply for the outer retina?
choroid
What provides the blood supply for the inner retina?
CRA (central retinal artery)
Which arteries forms the Circle of Zinn?
SPCA
How many LPCAs are there?
2
Which artery supplies the ant. choroid?
LPCA
What type of capillaries are found in the major arterial circle of the iris?
fenestrated (leaky)
fenestrated or non-fenestrated
LPCAs provide blood for which 3 structures?
iris
CB
ant. region of choroid
what provides circulation to the optic disc?
Circle of Zinn
formed by SPCAs
Which vein drains the CRA
CRV (central retinal vein)
What do the anterior ciliary veins drain
iris
CB
conj.
canal of schlemm
anterior structures
what drains the choroid
vortex veins
how many vortex veins are there
4
what do all of the orbital veins drain into
cavernous sinus
which veins drain into the superior and inferior ophthalmic veins before draining into the cavernous sinus?
anterior ciliary veins
vortex veins
which vein does not drain into the inferior ophthalmic vein before draining into the cavernous sinus
central retinal vein
* Which Cranial nerves run through the cavernous sinus?
CN3,4,V1, V2 & 6
Which CN runs close to the internal catotid artery
CN6
which CN is most likely to be affected by an aneurysm of the ICA
CN6 (abducens n.)
Which cranial nerves have direct involvement w/ the eye?
CN 2-7
Where do CNs 3 & 4 start
midbrain
which CNs start @ the midbrain
CN 3 & 4
Which CN provides parasympathetic innervation to the CB and sphincter
CN 3
Which CNs start @ the pons
CN 5-7
Where do CNs 5-7 start
pons
Which CNs start @ the medulla
CN 8-12
Where do CNs 8-12 start
medulla
Optic nerve fibers can end up in which three final destinations
pretectal nucleus for pupillary innervation

LGN (relays to primary visual cortex V1)

superior colliculus (for saccades)
areas responsible for pupil response, saccades and primary visual cortex
What is the fxn of the pretectal nucleus
pupillary response
what is the fxn of the superior colliculus
saccades
Where in the midbrain does CN 3 begin
Edinger-Wesphal nucleus
Which CN closes the eye
3
which CN opens the eye
7
Which CN provides sensation to the eye
5
Which CN3 fibers are the only ones that decussate
superior rectus fibers
What are the 3 structures that make up the uvea?
iris
ciliary body
choroid
colored part of eye
produces aqueous
provides blood supply for outer retina
5 layers of the cornea ant. to post.:
epithelium
Bowman's layer
stroma
Descemet's membrane
endothelium
What is the process for replacement of the corneal epithelium
basal cells move up to become wing cells → wing cells become surf. cells
turnover time for the corneal epithelium
7 days
Which two layers of the cornea do not regenerate if injured?
Endothelium
Bowman's
where guttata is present

bow's out if injured
What is the thickest layer of the cornea
stroma
where in the cornea are GAGs located
stroma
are GAGs hydrophilic or hydrophobic
hydrophilic
The cornea scatters what % of light that enters it
< 1%
2 primary fxns of the cornea
refract light
transmit light
refractive power of the cornea
~ 45 D
Hydration of the cornea
75-80%
From what structures does the cornea receive its nourishment?
aqueous humor (most of nutritional supply)

conjunctival and episcleral networks
Where is the sclera the thickest
posterior pole (1mm)
Where is the sclera the thinnest?
rectus muscle insertion (0.3mm)
hydration of the sclera
68%
less than the cornea
What is the weakest area of the outer connective tissue tunic of the sclera?
lamina cribosa
canals through which the optic n. bundles pass
Vessels that provide nourishment for the mostly avascular sclera:
episcleral and choroidal vessels

LPCAs
scleral innervation
short post. ciliary nerves
long post. ciliary nerves
structures of the anterior angle post. to anterior:
iris
CBB
SS
TM
Schwalbe's line
"I Can See The Stupid Line"

think about gonio view
Where do corneal stem cells come from
palisades of vogt
most common corneal change related to aging
arcus
cholesterol
are iris capillaries fenestrated or non-fenestrated?
non-fenestrated
Which system innervates the sphincter muscle?
parasympathetic
"SLUD"
contraction of the iris sphincter causes_____
miosis
contraction of the dilator muscle causes_____
mydriasis
Which system innervates the dilator muscle?
sympathetic
fight or flight
"need lots of light so you can see to get away"
Where does the Ciliary body terminate?
ora serrata
2 parts of the ciliary body:
pars plicata
pars plana
which portion of the ciliary body is fenestrated
pars plicata
portion that produces aqueous
Which portion of the CB contains tight junctions
pars plana
what forms the major arterial circle of the iris?
LPCAs
anterior ciliary arteries
what nourishes the outer retinal layers?
choroid
what is the innermost layer of the choroid
Bruch's membrane
which portion of the epithelium actively secretes aqueous?
non-pigmented
protein content of the aqueous is higher or lower than that of the blood?
lower
what do the vortex veins drain
choroid
what is the embryonic origin of the retina
neural ectoderm
what are the first 3 cells in the visual pathway?
photoreceptor
bipolar
ganglion
which retinal cells modify signals
Hz cells
amacrine cells
interplexiform neurons
layers of the retina outer to inner
RPE
photoreceptor
ELM
ONL
OPL
INL
IPL
ganglion cell layer
NFL
ILM
10
What attaches the posterior lens to the anterior vitreous?
hyaloid capuslar ligament
ligament
What is the largest circumference of the lens?
equator
approx. power of unaccommodated lens
20 D
what is the first lenlike structure observable in the embryo
lens vesicle
what is the thickest basement membrane in the body
lens capsule
T/F the lens does not have posterior epithelium
T
where in the lens does cell mitosis occur
germinal zone
most central portion of the lens
embryonic nucleus → fetal nucleus
Which portion of the lens has the highest index of refraction?
embryonic nucleus
Which y-suture in the lens is upright
anterior Y suture
Which y-suture in the lens is inverted?
posterior Y-suture
what does tertiary vitreous form?
lens zonules
What factors contribute to the tranparency of the lens?
. absencoe of blood vessels
. few organelles
. orderly fiber arrangement
. short dist. between
components
which type of metabolism is used in the lens
anaerobic glycolysis
what antioxidant in is found in high conc. in both the lens and aqueous
glutathione
what are 2 anti-oxidants found in high conc. in the aqueous
glutathione
ascorbic acid
aqueous exits the anterior chamber through______
Schlemm's canal
trabecular meshwork
two anatomic divisions of the trabecular meshwork
corneoscleral mesher
uveal meshwork
What separates the canal of Schlemm from the TM
juxtacanalicular tissue
What % of aqueous goes thru the uveal meshwork
5-35%
majority of the aqueous drains through_____
Schlemm's canal
Where does the lens sit in the vitreous chamber?
patellar fossa
strongest vitreous attachment?
vitreous base (ora serrata)
attachments of vitreous weakest to strongest
retinal vessels
macula
ON
posterior lens
ora serrata
During embryonic development, what goes thru Cloquet's canal in the vitreous?
hyaloid arter
conc. of collagen in the vitreous lowest to highest
center of vitreous
anterior cortex
posterior cortex
vitreous base
2nd major component of the vitreous
hyaluronic acid
photoreceptors are located in what layer(s) of the retina
photoreceptor layer
ONL
What cells are located in the INL of the retina?
Hz
bipolar
Muller
Amacrine
where are ganglion cells located
NFL
ganglion cell layer
muscles in the forehead that produce facial expression:
frontalis
procerus
corrugator superciliaris
orbicularis oculi
all innervated by CN 7
which facial m. is the m. of agression
procerus
4 major fxns of the eyelids:
protect the globe
move tears toward medial
canthus
spread tear film
produce tears
Where do upper and lower eyelids meet?
medial and lateral canthus
what are the two portions of th eyelid
tarsal portion
orbital portion (area of brow where you apply makeup)
what separates the tarsal portion of the eyelid from the orbital portion
palpebral sulcus (ridge in the eyelid)
which nerve innervates the orbicularis oculi?
CN 7 (facial n.)
which portion of the orbicularis oculi gently closes the eyelids
palpebral portion
which portion of the orbicularis oculi tightly closes the eyelids
orbital portion
what is the action of the levator m.
open the eyelids
which n. innervates the levator muscle
superior division of CN 3
meibomian glands are what type of gland
sebaceous
Meibomian glands what part of the tear layer
outer lipid layer
which sebaceous glands support the eyelash hair follicles
glands of Zeis
which lacrimal glands are responsible for maintenance tearing
accessory (Wolfring & Krause)
lacrimal glands contribute to which portion of the tear film?
aqueous
Layers of the tear film ant. to post.
lipid (meibomian glands)
aqueous
mucin (goblet cells)
"LAME"
what produces the mucin layer of the tear film?
goblet cells
which muscle is deeper the levator m. or the orbicularis m.?
levator
paralysis of the orbicularis can cause what?
ectropion
can result in epiphora
which CN opens the eye?
3
which CN closes the eye?
7
which two muscles hold the eyelid open?
muscle of muller
levator m.
infection of the Zeis and Moll glands typically results in ?
external hordeolum
what supplies the innervation for the muscle of muller
sympathetic
which nerve supplies the innervation for the upper eyelid?
V1 (ophthalmic division)
which nerve supplies the innervation for the lower eyelid?
V2 (maxillary division)
where does the blood supply for the eyelids come from?
branches of the ICA
(lateral and medial palpebral arterties)
where does blood supply for the superficial eyelid come from?
branches of the ECA
* where do the lateral lymphatics of the conj. drain?
preauricular node
* where do the medial lymphatics of the conj. drain?
submandibular lymph nodes
where do the lymphatics of the conj. drain?
PAN
parotid nodes
submandibular lymph nodes
what is the fxn of the plica semilunaris?
provides slack in the conj. for lateral movt's
where does the blood supply for the bulbar conj. come from
anterior ciliary arteries
what innvervates the bulbar conj.?
long posterior ciliary n.
what innervates the palpebral conj.
V1
V2
what causes the division of the palpebral and orbitalportions of the lacrimal gland?
tendon of superior levator palpebrae muslce
what syndrome results in decreasd body secretionS?
Sjogren's syndrome
where does the nasolacrimal terminate?
inferior meatus of the nasal cavity
where is the cornea the thickest?
periphery
what is the thickness of the corneal epithelium?
52 um
thickness of Bowman's layer
8-14 um
thickness of the stroma
450 um
thickness of the endothelium
5 um
only one cell layer thick
what makes up the majority of GAG's in the corneal stroma?
keratin sulfate
which layers of the cornea do not contain innervation?
Descemet's
endothelium
does corneal epithelim scar?
no
which veins drain schlemm's canal?
episcleral veins
which division of the TM provides the most resistance to aqueous outflow?
juxtacanlicular (JXT)
how will and increase in episcleral venous pressure affect IOP
IOP will increase because the TM pathway is pressure dependent
what affects iris color
numer of melanocytes in the anterior border layer of the stroma
what happens to the diameter and thickness of the lens during accommodation?
diam. decrease
thickness increase
what is the innermost layer of the choroid?
bruch's membrane
place bruch's membrane, choroid, retina, RPE and sclera in order from ant. to post.
retina
RPE
Bruch's
choroid
sclera
what can cause angioid streaks in bruch's membrane
pseudoxanthoma elasticum
what is mittendorf's dot
dot on post.suf. of lens where hyaloid a. was attached
what is bergmeister's papillae
small dot on the optic disc what the hyaloid a. had been attached during embryonic development
what type of lens fibers are generated after the development of the embryonic nucleus
secondary lens fibers
where do retinal detachments occur?
between retina and RPE
which portion of the trigeminal nerve is the motor portion?
V3
which nerve provides motor innervation to the muscles of mastication?
V3
What are the branches of V1?
nasociliary n.
frontal n.
lacrimal n.
what does the long ciliary n. innervate?
cornea
iris
ciliary m.
long ciliary n. is a branch of which n.?
nasociliary n. of V1
which cranial n. is used for reflex tearing?
CN 7
which CN is used for reflex blinking?
5
what are the two terminal branches of the V2 (maxillary division of the trigeminal n.)?
infraorbital n.
zygomatic n.
Bell's palsy has ipsilateral or contralateral effects?
ipsilteral
lower motor neuron lesion
does a stroke have ipsilateral or contralateral effects?
contralateral
upper motor neuron lesion
is bell's palsy or a stroke caused by a supranuclear lesion?
stroke
"S"upra nuclear
If the eye is down and out, which CN has been affected?
CN 3
if a pt. presents with an eye down and out w/ fixed pupils you should suspect?
post. communicating artery aneurysm
medical emergency
what are the common causes of CN 3 palsy w/ pupil sparing
HTN
diabetes
what is the classic triad for Horner's syndrome
ptosis
miosis
anhydrosis
disruption of sympathetic pathway
where does the first synapse in the visual pathway occur
OPL
How do Hz cells modify the info. that reaches the bipolar cells
provide lateral inhibition
what effect does an amacrine cell have on a ganglion cell?
decrease stimulation to the ganglion cell
what effect does a bipolar cell have on a ganglion cell?
increase stimulation
where are midget ganglion cells found
fovea
carries info. from a single cone
where is the NFL the thinnest?
macula
where in the brain do midget cells terminate?
parvocellular layer of the LGN
Where in the retina are M-type ganglion cells located?
periphery
Where in the brain do M-type ganglion cells terminate?
magnocellular layer of the LGN
where in the retina are Muller cells not found?
photoreceptor layer
where in the retina does the central retinal artery form capillary networks?
INL and NFL
which portion of the retina receives its blood supply from the choroid
5 outer retinal layers
where does the cilioretinal artery come from?
choroid
only 15-20% of the pop.
what is the significance of the Cilioretinal artery if it is present?
macular sparing in the event of a CRAO (cetral retinal artery occlusion)
where does the macula receive its blood supply from?
SPCA
where is the highest conc. of cones in the retina located?
foveola
where in the macula are rods the most dense?
perifovea
when does the optic n. become myelinated
lamina cribosa
weakest part of the sclera
which cells provide the myelination for the optic nerve
oligodendrocytes
the LGN has how many layers?
*6
1-2 magnocellular
3-6 parvocellular
which layers of the LGN are the magnocellular layers?
1-2
which layers of the LGN are the parvocellular layers?
3-6
which layers of the LGN receive input from the contralateral nasal retina
4 & 6
wich layers of the LGN receive input from the ipsilateral temporal retina
2,3 & 5
which part of the visual cortex receives input from the LGN
Broadman area 17 or V1
which layers of the LGN are the magnocellular layers?
1-2
which layers of the LGN are the parvocellular layers?
3-6
which layers of the LGN receive input from the contralateral nasal retina
4 & 6
wich layers of the LGN receive input from the ipsilateral temporal retina
2,3 & 5
which part of the visual cortex receives input from the LGN
Broadman area 17 or V1
where do superior retinal fibers terminate?
cuneus gyrus
where do inferior retinal fibers terminate
lingual gyrus
where does the main blood supply for the striate cortex come from
posterior cerebral artery