Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/128

Click to flip

128 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
(1) The first stage in adaptive immunity?
T-cell activation by dendritic cells
(2) Where is T-cell activation accomplished?
Lyph nodes
(3) Why are dendritic cells so much better at T-cell activation
They can migrate
(4) Where do dendritic cells migrate to for infection found in the blood?
The Spleen
(5) Where are gastriointestinal infections taken to?
The peyer's patches
(6) Immature Dendritic Cells?
Dendritic cells found in tissue
(7) Mature Dendritic Cells?
Dendritic Cells found in the lymph nodes
(8) Where in the lymph node are dendritic cells found?
The T-cell regions of the cortex
(9) Hwo to Dendritic cells take in bacteria and virus particles?
receptor mediated pagocytosis
(10) Macropinocytpsis?
Phagocytosis of particles that are not reconized by pathogin reconition receptors
(11) Cross presentation?
When a dendritic cell is infected by viruse and oarticles are expressed on both MHC I and MHC II
(12) The TLR that is not expressed on Dendritic Cells?
TLR9
(13) The effect of activation on dendritic cell presentation?
It Increases the effectivness of phagocytosis and MHC loading
(14) What is the use of CCR7?
It binds to CCL21 and guids that cell to the lymph
(15) The effect of DC activation on MHCs?
Increases thier expression
(16) What will a T-cell do if it does not encounter it's antigen in the lymoh?
It will exite and either enter another lymph node or reenter circulation
(17) How long does it take for T-cell activation in the lymph?
several days
(18) Homing?
the specific entry of a cell into the lymph
(19) CCL21 and CCL19 are secreted by?
Lymph node tissue in order to set up a gradient to guide cell to it
(20) LFA-1 Binds to?
ICAMS
(21) What happends to LFA receptor upon T-call activaiton?
It binds ICAM more strongly so that it can hold on the the dendritic cell
(22) Sphingosine 1 -phosphate? (SIP)
A chemocine that directs cell back towords circulation
(23) How to effecto T-cell find thier way back to circulation?
They start to express (SIP) receptors
(24) What is the co-stimulatory signal?
binding of the APC's B7 to the T-cell's CD28
(25) What are the 2 signals needed for Activation?
MHC to CD 4 or 8 and B7 to CD28
(26) How do cell avoid being activated when there is no infection?
APC hide thier co-stimulatory signals
(27) How are co-stimulatiory signals told to be expressed?
By activation of a TLR or antigen reconition receptor
(28) CTLA4?
Bind B7 20x more effectily and shuts down the immune responce
(29) Where are macrophages found in the lymph node?
The Cortex and Medulla
(30) Where are B-cells found in the Lymph node?
The B-cell Follicles
(31) CCL18?
Specifically attracts maive T-cells towords them
(32) Why would you want macrophages eating up antigen particles in the lymph?
It prevents infection from reaching the circulatory system
(33) 2 Things that macrophages do in the lymph tissue?
1. trap and degrade pathogens that arrive in the lymph
2. remove and degrade lymphocytes that are not selected
(34) How do B-cells bind antegen?
Though the use of thier immunoglobulin BCR
(35) immunological synapse or t-cell synapse?
The region of contact between a APC and a T-cell
(36) CD3?
Is the signal to the cell that antigen is bound
(37) ITAMs?
immunoreceptor tyosine-based activation motifs... They activate protien kinases and are found at the tail ends od CD3 molecules
(38) How do t-cells signal they have bound antigen?
Lck activates Zap70
(39) How many MHCs must bind for activation?
around 100 or .1-1%
(40) c-SMAC
central supramolecular activation comlex. where most of the stimulatory molecules are concentrated
(31) CCL18?
Specifically attracts maive T-cells towords them
(32) Why would you want macrophages eating up antigen particles in the lymph?
It prevents infection from reaching the circulatory system
(33) 2 Things that macrophages do in the lymph tissue?
1. trap and degrade pathogens that arrive in the lymph
2. remove and degrade lymphocytes that are not selected
(34) How do B-cells bind antegen?
Though the use of thier immunoglobulin BCR
(35) immunological synapse or t-cell synapse?
The region of contact between a APC and a T-cell
(36) CD3?
Is the signal to the cell that antigen is bound
(37) ITAMs?
immunoreceptor tyosine-based activation motifs... They activate protien kinases and are found at the tail ends od CD3 molecules
(38) How do t-cells signal they have bound antigen?
Lck activates Zap70
(39) How many MHCs must bind for activation?
around 100 or .1-1%
(40) c-SMAC
central supramolecular activation comlex. where most of the stimulatory molecules are concentrated
(41) What happends when a cell does not receive the secondary signal?
It becomes anergic
(42) Anergy?
Unresponsive and unable to be activated
(43) 2 types of CD4?
TH1 and TH2
(44) What are the main kinds of cytokines produced by TH1s?
IL-2 and INF gamma
(45) The main kinds to cytokines produced by TH2?
IL-4 and IL-5
(46) What determins which type of CD4 is created?
The cytokines in the envirnment at the time
(48) What stimulates TH1 development?
IL-12 and INF gamma
(47) How is the develpment of CD4s reinforced?
By cytokines produced by themelves
(49) T-bet?
A transcription factor turned on in CD4 cells to stimulate INF production
(50) GATA-3?
A trascription factor in CD4 cells that stimulates to production of IL-4 and IL-5
(51) Cell-mediated immunity is activated by which TH class?
TH1
(52) Humoral Immunity is activated by which TH class?
TH2
(53) The co-stimulatory to activate a CD8 cell must be stronger or weaker than the signal for a CD4?
Stronger
(54) 2 Ways that a CD4 cell can help activate a CD8?
1. An effector CD4 can release cytokines that induce expression of MORE co-stimulatory molecules from the dendritic cell
2. A neive CD4 can induce the APC to secrete more IL-2
(55) How is CD2 and LFA-1 expression different in effector cells?
Thier expression goes up in order to migrate better to the sight of infection.
(56) Cytotoxin?
Used to kill infected cells
(57) Which cell signalling pathway is used most often in Cytokine expression?
JAK STAT
(58) When do CD8 cells start to produce granules?
After activation
(59) Describe how a CD8 kills cells?
serglycin, perforin and granulysin make a pore and then granzymes are inserted to induce apoptosis
(60) 2 ways CD8 cell induce apoptosis?
1. granzymes
2. Fas/Fas ligand binding.
(61) Conjugate pair?
When a macrophage and Th1 cell are bound together during activation
(62) 2 signals for Macrophage activation?
1. INF gamma
2. CD40 - CD40L
(63) How can TH2 cells limit the effect of TH1 cells?
They secrete cytokines that suppress macrophages
(64) 2nd signal for B cell activation?
CD 40
(65) cognate interaction?
When a B cell and a T cell that reconize the same antigen are bound
(66) 2 ways the Tregs supress the immune system?
1. Bind to Dendritic cells
2. Bind to T effector cells
(67) With most of the bad protozoa being outside the uniters states... why study them?
People travel
(68) 3 major groups of medically important protozoans?
1. Amoeba
2. Apicomplexan
3. Kinetoplastids
(69) 2 main groups of parasites?
1. Protozoans
2. Helminths
(70) Are protozoans unicellular or multicellular?
Unicellular and microscopic
(71) What kind of immune response handles protozoans?
Mostly Th1
(75) Are Protozoans mostly intracellular ot extracellular?
Both
(72) Are Helminths unicellular or multicellular?
Multicellular
(73) What kind of immune responce handles Helminths?
Th2
(74) Are Helminths intracellular or extracellular?
Mostly extracellular
(76) 3 major classes of Helminths?
1. Cestodes (tapeworms)
2. Trematodes (flukes)
3. Nematodes
(77) What is the key to diagnosis a paracite infection?
History
(78) Mycology?
Study of Fungi
(79) Are fungi eukaryotic or prokaryotic?
eukariotic
(80) Mycoses?
Fungal Infection
(81) The 2 Mycoses with the highest inccidence?
1. Candidiases
2. dermatophyosis
(82) 5 mycoses classifications?
1. superficial
2. cutaneous
3. subcutaneous
4. systemic
5. opportunistic
(83) Why are mycoses difficult to treat?
They are eukaryotes
(84) fungi grow in 2 forms?
yeasts and molds
(85) Hyphae?
branching cylindric tubules on which colonies are formed
(86) mycelium?
The intertwined mass that is formed by hyphae
(87) septa?
When hypae are separated into cells by cross-walls
(88) Are yeast single celled or multi celled?
single celled
(89) How do yeast reproduce?
budding
(90) pseudohyphae
a chain of elongated yeast cells
What is a fugal cell wall made of?
Cellulose and chitin
The main sterol difference in fungi
aldosterol
How do fungi sexualy reproduce?
2 haploid cells fuse and then they go thuogh meiosis
teleomorph?
sexual spores
anamorph?
asexual spores
Aseptate?
no cell walls between cell nuclei
5 diagnostic characteristics used to identify fungi
1. typr of hypea
2. asexual conidia
3. conidia-bearing sttructure
4. pigmintation
5. monomorphic or dimorphic
Monomorphic?
It growes in only one phase yeast or mold in all tempuratures
Dimorphic?
When fungi will change thier for when placed in different mediums
Chlamydoconidia?
very think walled rounded and more resistant.
Arthroconidia?
thikened cell wall that retains it's retangular cell shape
blastoconidia?
budding
sporangiconidia?
a big round ball that contains sporangiospors
Mycotoxicoses?
When we react to fungul toxins but not the fungus
The "gold standard" antimycotic drug?
Amphotericin B
The primary way to diagnos paracites?
Microscopy
The biggest clue to a helmith infection?
eosinophilia
ascariasis?
and egg laying machine, roundworm
another name for B7?
CD80
superantigen?
an antigen that provides bother stimulatory signals and drives t-cell expansion
alpha IL-2 recepor chain?
Is added to the IL-2 receptor when a cell is activated to make it better.
PD-1?
binds to PD-L1 and suts down the immune respons like CTLA-4
TH17 cells?
If a CD4 cell is exposed to TGF or IL6 they become Th17 secret IL-6 and IL17 and help to recruit neutrophiles, maily inflamatory
IL-4 does
induced b cell to class switch
IL-5?
activates eosinophiles
IL-15 and Il-7
survival cytokines for memory cells
Which cells are important for establishing memory cells?
CD4
2 types of memory cells?
effector memory cells and central memory cells.