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39 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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mast cells degranulate with the influx of ____
Ca2+
Immediate Type I allergic response
5-30 minutes
Late phase Type I allergic response
4-6 hours after initial contact
2 types of cells that release histamine
mast cells and basophils
histamine has these major systemic effects
smooth muscle contraction
vascular permeability
vasodilation
sensory nerve stimulation
gastric parietal cell stimulation (HCl release)
H1 receptors are found
bronchial smooth muscle
central nervous system
conj blood vessels
(what does histamine do to these tissues?)
bronchial -- bronchoconstriction
CNS -- sedation
conj blood vessels -- vasodilation and permeability
H2 receptors found
gastric parietal cells
blood vessels
(what does histamine do to these tissues?)
GPC -- increase gastric secretion
blood vessels -- vasodilation/permeability
H1 receptors more associated with ______ tissue
neuronal (itching response)
H2 receptors more associated with _____ tissue
vascular (redness)
Type IV allergic reaction
when?
what cells are activated?
12-72 hours after allergen exposure
macrophages are activated, with lytic enzymes used in the response
Treat allergy Pts based on _______
severity of case
phenylephrine MOA
what type of drug is this?
contraindicated with?
MOA - agonistically bind to the vascular endothelium and promote vasoconstriction
alpha-adrenergic agonist
contraindicated with angle-closure glaucoma, occludable angles, vasopressor response, CVD, DM
antihistamines MOA
bind antagonistically to hist receptors and block histamine response
(hist can also bind to what other receptors?)
serotonin
muscuranic
alpha-adrenergic
antihistamines have this major SE
antimuscuranic mimicking
1st generation antihistamines caused
sedation/depression in adults
second generation antihistamines are less _____ ______
lipid soluble
(and therefore less sedating)
antazoline phosphate
topical H1 antihistamine (1st generation)
-comes with adrenergic agonist naphazoline
pheniramine maleate
topical H1 antihistamine (1st generation)
-comes with adrenergic agonist naphazoline
emedastine
topical H1 antihistamine (1st generation)
(trade name)
Emastine
azelastine
mast cell destabilizer/antihistamine
(trade name)
Optivar
what can cause verticillate type keratopathy?
azelastine (mast cell/antihist)
(trade name)
Optivar
MOA of mast cell stabilizers
prevent Ca2+ influx across cell membrane (Ca2+ causes binding of vesicles with the cell membrane and exocytosis)
initiation of action for mast cell stab
not immediate
only nedocromil has short (15-30 minute onset of action)
SE of mast cell stab
HA, OSD, styes
cromolyn sodium
mast cell stab
(trade name)
opticrom, crolom
lodoxamide tromethamine
mast cell stab
VKC
(trade name)
Alomide
nedocromil sodium
mast cell stab
SAC
(trade name)
quick response time (15-30 min)
Alocril
pemirolast potassium
mast cell stab
SAC
(trade name)
Alamast
azelastine
mast cell/antihist combo
(trade name)
Optivar
epinastine
mast cell/antihist combo
(trade name)
Elestat
ketotifen fumarate
mast cell/antihist combo
(trade name)
Zaditor, Alaway
olapatadine
mast cell/antihist combo
(trade name)
Patanol/Pataday
SE of mast cell stab/antihist
OSD, FB sens, HA, BITTER TASTE
bepotastine besilate
mast cell/antihist combo
(trade name)
Bepreve
alcaftadine
mast cell/antihist combo
(trade name)
lastacraft
ketorolac trimethamine
topical NSAID for allergy Tx
(trade name)
(decreases prostaglandin synthesis)
Acular
loteprednol
topical steroid for allergy Tx
(trade name)
(decreases immune response, decreases Hist release)
Alrex
chronic allergic reaction Tx (4)
**use mast cell stab for long term Tx
1. Alamast (pemirolast potassium)
2. Alocril (nedocromil sodium)
3. Alomide (lodoxamide tromethamine)
4. Crolom, Opticrom (Cromolyn Sodium)
acute allergic reaction Tx (8)
1. Emadine (emadastine--antihistamine/decongestant)
2. Elestat (epinastine--mast cell stab/antihist)
3. Alaway/Zaditor (ketotifen fumarate--mast cell stab/antihist)
4. Optivar (azelastine--mast cell stab/antihist)
5. Pataday/Patanol (olapatadine--mast cell stab/antihist)
6. Bepreve (bepotastine--mast cell stab/antihist)
7. ketorolac trimethamine (Acular--NSAID)
8. loteprednol (Alrex--steroid)