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46 Cards in this Set

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there are two patterns of ocean circulation they are...
Surface circulation (occuring above 200m)

Deep ocean circulation (occuring below 200m)
surface circulation is caused by... Deep water circulation is caused by...
Wind + Coriolis ; Density stratification
ULTIMATELY what is the source of energy for both systems...
differential solar heating and gravity.
At what rate do oceans flow?
1-2% of the wind speed.
Since wind travels between... Currents travel between...
5-20 m/s
.1-.5 m/s
What is ekman transport?
the net movement of water.
In what direction is Ekman transport in the north? south?
90 degrees to the right of the wind + Coriolis.

90 degrees to the left of the wind + Coriolis.
Ekman transport suggests that the wind has a greater effect on... therefore what do we see...?
the top layers are moved along by wind faster. so as you move down the water column the velocity of the water's movement decreases.
this decrease in velocity according to water level is called?
ekman spiral
What are the North atlantic ocean currents?
N- North atlantic
W- Canary current
S- N. Equatorial current
E- Gulf stream
What are the South atlantic ocean currents?
N- S. equatorial current
W- benguella current
S- westwind drift
E- brazil current
What are the North pacific ocean currents?
N- North atlantic
E- Kuroshio current
S- s. equatorial current
W- alaskan or californian current
What are the South pacific ocean currents?
N- S equatorial current
W- Peru current
S- westwind drift
E- east australian current
What are the currents in the indian ocean
N- South equatorial
W- western australian current
S- westwind drift
E- Alguhas current
As a result of currents pointing in different directions we get hills of water called...
gyres
in the north gyres cause CW/CCW movement. In the south?
CW ; CCW
What is the height of the hills? why dont they get taller?
1-1.5 m high; gravity counters the force of ekman spiral.
Of the western boundary currents and the eastern boundary currents, which moves faster?
Western (3.5 knots vs. .5 knots)
We know western boundary current are faster. Are they

-cooler/warmer
-Strong/weak
-brings moisture?
-narrow/wide
-example?
warmer, strong, bring moisture and are narrow (to move fast)

Gulf stream
the Gulf stream travels at about what speed? purpose?
2 m/s; transports warm water to northern lattitudes.
water that swirls off from currents (circular)
Edies
Eddies could be CW or counter clockwise. Which are nutrient rich?
CCW (use RHR). Recall cold upwellings bring cold nutrient-rich water to the surface.
How deep do eddy's travel? how long do they last? what occurs at eddies?
some are surface to sea floor storms. They last several years.

HIGH BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTIVITY
EASTERN Boundary currents

-warmer/colder
-deeper/shallower
-broader/narrower
-slower/faster
-eddies?
cooler

shallower

broader

slower

no eddies
East wind drift and west wind drift are examples of... they are found where in the world?
transverse currents; Antartica.
East wind current and West wind current produce some of the largest...
waves, storms and currents because there is no continent to impede their movement.
What is the other transverse current we should know?
Equatorial counter current
Both NE and SE tradewinds point wind and water to the West at 5N and 5S. Then what?
Water theoretically builds up in the West and it flows back east along the equator beneath the doldrums (NO WIND).
As a result of higher currents in the west. Indonesia (west) has how much higher currents than Peru?
.5 m
movement of deep water to surface
Brings cold, nutrient-rich water to surface
High productivity: abundant marine life
Upwellings
= movement of surface water down
Moves warm, nutrient-depleted surface water down
Low productivity!
Down welling
What are two scenarios that cause upwellings?
Water moving away from the continental shelf (new water moves in from below)

When currents diverge.
What are two scenarios for downwelling to occur?
When water flows toward a continent.

When currents converge.
Wind convergence causes
current divergence and therefore upwellings
Where on a map do upwellings occur?
at the equator, at the polar fronts and at WESTERN BOUNDARIES OF continents.
how do we know where to drill for petroleum?
petroleum exists in regions of upwelling (high biological productivity). Oceanographists then examine upwelling trends and trace it back millions of years and dig where there were upwellings.
What causes ENSO?
changes in atmospheric condition causes changes in currents which changes temperature of water making water much warmer and therefore LESS FISH.
What are normal conditions called? what are normal conditions?
La Nina.

Low pressure over india (west) and high pressure over peru (east). Rain therefore falls in the west and currents travel from East to west like equatorial currents do. Causing upwelling off the coast of peru and down welling off the coast of india.
During ENSO conditons,
there is high pressure over both countries and low pressure over the pacific. however warm water pools in the east where downwelling now occurs.
During ENSO we notice what with hurricanes?
Fewer Atlantic hurricanes, more Pacific hurricanes
based on the 2006 hurricane season it is safe to assume...
we are at the start of ENSO conditions.
Intense low pressure systems that form in the tropics
Hurricanes
Most damage caused by
Storm surge
why does a hurricane thrive on hot water?
Ocean adds energy in form of vapor (latent heat of condensation).
Global warming and hurricanes?
Scientific evidence suggests there is a link between global warming and the power—not frequency—of hurricanes,"
HURRICANES form where?
HURRICANES DO NOT FORM AT THE EQUATOR… NO CORIOLIS

They form at the ICTZ. waves off of Africa.