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95 Cards in this Set

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absorption
taking in of a substance by chemical of molecular means; change of sound or light energy into some othe form, usually head, in passing through a medium or striking a surface
abyssal
pertaining to the great depths of the ocean below approx. 4000 meters
abyssal hill
low, rounded submarine hill less that 1000 m high
abyssal plain
flat, ocean basin floor extending seaward from the base of the continental slope and cintinental rise
adsorption
attraction of ions to a solid surface
advection
horizontal or vertical transport of sea water, as by a current
advective fog
fog formed when air saturated w. water vapor moves over cold water
agar
substance produced by red algae. the gelitin like product of these algae.
algae
marine and fresh water plantlike organisms (inc. seaweeds) that are single-celled colonial or multi-celled w. chorophyll but no true root stems or leaves and w. no flowers or seeds
algin
complex organic substance found in or uptained from brown algae
amplitude
for a wave the vertical distance from sea level to crest or from sea level to trough or 1/2 the wave height
anion
negatively charged ion
anoxic
deficient in oxygen
antarctic bottom water
densest oceanic water type formed at the surface below sea ice, flows northward along the floor of the atlantic ocean
antarctic intermediate water
water w. the salinity of 34.4 o/oo and a temp. of 5 degrees C. produced at the 40 degrees S. surface convergence at the atlantic
antinode
portion of a standing wave w. maximum vertical motion
aphotic zone
back part of the ocean in which light is insufficient to carry on photosynthesis
aqua culture
cultivation of aquatic organisms under controlled conditions
artic and antarctic circles
lattitudes 66 1/2 degrees N & 66 1/2 degrees S respectivly marking the boundaries of light and darkness during the summer and winter solstices
asthenosphere
upper deformable portion of the earth's mantel, the layer below the lithosphere; probably partially molton; maybe site of convection cells
atmostpheric pressure
pressure exerted by the atmostphere due to the weight of the column of air lying directly above any point of like earth
atoll
ring-shaped choral reef that encloses a lagoon in which there is no exposed pre-existing land and which is surrounded by the open sea
attenuation
decrease in the energy of a wave or beam of particles occuring as the distance from the source increases; caused by absorption scattering and divergance from a point source
backshore
beach zone lying b/w the foreshore and the coast acted upon by waves only during severe storms and exceptionally high water
baleen
whalebone; horny material growing down from the upper jaw of plankton feeding whales; forms a strainer, or filtering organ, consisting of numerous plates w. fringed edges.
bar
ofshore ridge or mound of sand, gravel, or other loose material, which is submerged, @ least at high tide; located especially at the mouth of the river or estuary, or lying a short distance from and parallel to the beach.
barrier island
deposit of sand, parallel to shore and raised above sea level; may support vegetation and animal life .
barrier reef
choral reef that parallels land but is some distance offshore, w. water b/w reef and land.
basalt
fine-grained, dark igneous rock, rich in iron, magnesium, and calcium; charachteristic of ocean crust
basin
large depression of the sea flooooor having about equal dimensions of length and width.
bathometric
pertaining to the study and mapping of seaflooor elevations and variations of water depth; pertaining to the topography of the sea floor period.
beach
zone of unconsolidated material b/w the mean low water line and the line of permanent vegetation which is also the effective of storm waves; sometimes includes the material moving in off shore, onshore, and long shore transport
beachface
section of the foreshore normally exposed to the action of waves.
benthic
of the sea florr, or pertaining to organisms living on or in the sea florr
benthos
organisms living on or in the ocean bottom
berm
nerly horizontal portion of a beach(backshore) w. an abrupt face; formed from the deposition of material by wave action at high tide
berm crest
ridge marking the seaward limit of a berm
bigenous sediment
sedimnet having mor than 30% material derived from organisms
bioluminescence
production of light by living organisms as a result of a chemical reaction either within certain cells or organs or outside the cells in some form of excretion
biomass
the total mass of all or specific living organsims, usually expressed as dry weight or grams of carbon per unit area of unit volume
bioturbation
reworking of sediments by organisms that burrow and ingest them
blade
flat, photosynthetic, "leafy" portion of an alga or seaweed
bloom
high concentration of phytoplankton in an area, caused by increased reproduction; often produces discoloration of the water
breaker
sea surface-water wave that has become too steep to be stable and collapses
breakwater
structure protecting a shore area, harbor, anchorage, or basin from waves; a type of jetty
buffer
substance able to neutralize acids and bases, therefore able to maintain a stable pH
buoyancy
ability of an obj. to float due to the support of the fluid the body is in or on
calcareous
containing or composed of calcium carbonate
calorie
amount of heat required to raise the temp. of 1 gram of water 1 degree C at 15 degress to 16 degrees C
carbonate
an ion composed of on carbon and 3 oxygen atoms COm to the 2-...?
benthos
organisms living on or in the ocean bottom
berm
nerly horizontal portion of a beach(backshore) w. an abrupt face; formed from the deposition of material by wave action at high tide
berm crest
ridge marking the seaward limit of a berm
bigenous sediment
sedimnet having mor than 30% material derived from organisms
bioluminescence
production of light by living organisms as a result of a chemical reaction either within certain cells or organs or outside the cells in some form of excretion
biomass
the total mass of all or specific living organsims, usually expressed as dry weight or grams of carbon per unit area of unit volume
bioturbation
reworking of sediments by organisms that burrow and ingest them
blade
flat, photosynthetic, "leafy" portion of an alga or seaweed
bloom
high concentration of phytoplankton in an area, caused by increased reproduction; often produces discoloration of the water
breaker
sea surface-water wave that has become too steep to be stable and collapses
breakwater
structure protecting a shore area, harbor, anchorage, or basin from waves; a type of jetty
buffer
substance able to neutralize acids and bases, therefore able to maintain a stable pH
buoyancy
ability of an obj. to float due to the support of the fluid the body is in or on
calcareous
containing or composed of calcium carbonate
calorie
amount of heat required to raise the temp. of 1 gram of water 1 degree C at 15 degress to 16 degrees C
carnivore
flesh eating organism
carrageenan
substance produced by certain algae, useed as a thinkening agent
cation
positively charged ion
centrifugal force
outward-directed force acting on a body moving along a curved path or rotating about an axis
cetacean
any member of the order Cetacea, mostly marine mammals, includes whales, dolphins, and porpoises
chemosynthesis
formation of organic compounds with energy derived from inorganic substances such as ammonia, sulfur, and hydrogen
chlorinity
measure of the chloride content of seawater in grams per kilogram
chlorophyll
group of green pigments that are active in photosynthesis
cilia
microscopic, hairlike processes of living celss, which beat in coordinated fashion and prodcuce movement
cnidaria
phylum of radially symmetrical marine organisms w. tentacles and stinging cells; includes jellyfish, sea anemones, and corals
coast
strip of land of indefinite width that extends from the shore inland to the first major change in terrain that is unaffected by marine processes
coastal circulation cell
longshore transport cell pattern of sediment moving from a source to a place of deposition
coastal zone
land and water areas including cliffs, dunes, beaches, bays and estuaries
colonial (organism)
organism consisting of semi-independent parts that do no exist as seperate units; groups of orgaisms w. specialized functions that form a coordinated unit
commensalism
an intimate association between different organisms in which one is benefited and the other is neither harmed nor benefited
conduction
transfer of heat energy through matter by internal molecular motion; also heat transfer by turbulance in fluids
conservative ions
seawater ions whose concentration changes only as a result of physical processes and not as a result of biological or chemical processes; for example, salinity
continental drift
motion of the continents due to plate tectonics
continental margin
zone separating the continents from the deep-sea bottom, usually subdivided into shelf, slope, and rise
continental rise
gentle slope formed by the deposition of sediments at the base of a continental slope
continental shelf
zone bordering a continent, extending from the line of permanent immersion to the depth at which there is a marked or rater steep descent to the great depths
continental shelf break
zone along which there is a marked increase of slope at the outer margin of a continental shelf
continental slope
relatively steep downward slope from the continental shelf break to depth
contour
line on a chart or graph connecting the points of equal value for elevation, temp., salinty, and so on
convection
transmission of heat by the movement of a heated gas or liquid; vertical circulation resulting from changes in density of a fluid
convection cell
density-driven transfer of heat by circulation of liquid or gas in which warm, loq-density material rises and cold, high density material falls
convergence
situation in which fluids of different origins come together, usuually resulting in the sinking, or downwelling, or surface water and the rising of air
copepod
small, shrimplike members of the zooplankton
coral
colonial andima that secretes a hard, outer, calcareous skeleton; the skeletons of coral animals form in part the framework for warmwater reefs
core
vertical, cylindrical sample of bottom sediments, from which the nature of the bottom can be determined; also the central zone of the earth, thought to be liquid or molten on th eouside and solid on the inside