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118 Cards in this Set

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A capella
choral music without instrumental accompaniment
accidental
a sharp, flat, or natural symbol before a note;
indicates a pitch from outside the specific scale
adagio
slow tempo
aerophone
an instrument that creates sound by the vibration of a column of air
allegro
fast tempo
alto
a female woice with a range lower than soprano, or a high male voice
andante
moderate, walking tempo
ballet
musical form written to cincide with a story to be danced
bar
vertical line through the staff; marks a metrical division of music
baritone
a male voice with a range between a tenor and bass
bar line
a vertical line on the staff that separates one measure from the next
bass
a male voice with the lowest range
bass clef
a symbol that indicate that the 4th line from the bottom of a staff represents the pitch of F below middle C; also called an F clef
beat
the underlying pulse in music
binary form
the form of a piece that has 2 sections, AB
bridge
1) a linking passage
2) the part of a string instrument over which the strings pass
cadence
a progression of notes or chords that gives the effect of closing a passage of music
chanson
French word for "song", used in reference to French polyphonic songs in midieval times and during Renaissance
chorale
a traditional German hymn
chord
a combination of 3 or more pitches played at once
chordophone
an instrument that produces sound via the vibration of a stretched string that is bowed, plucked, or struck
chromatic scale
a scale based on an octave of 12 semitones
clef
a symbol that designates the pitch range to be dispayed on the staff
coda
a passage at the end of a movement or composition that brings it to a formal close
concerto
a work that featured effects of contrast; now a work in which a solo instrument is contrasted with a larger ensemble or orchestra
consonance
refers to a combination of sounds that is smooth and harmonious
continuo
a bass accompaniment; numerals written underneath the notes indicate the kind of harmony to be played
crescendo
gradually increasing in loudness
decrescendo
gradually decreasing in loudness
diatonic scale
a scale using only the eight tones of a standard major or minor scale without chromatic deviations
dissonance
refers to combinations of sounds that are rough and inharmonious
dominant
the 5th step or degree of a scale
downbeat
the accented beat at the beginning of a measure
dynamics
the gradations of loudness in music
electrophone
an instrument that produces sound by electronic means
equal temperament tuning
based on a scale whose "steps" or degrees have equal intervals between them
form
the structure or organization of a piece of music
forte
loud
fortissimo
very loud
frequency
number of vibrations per second that create a sound; determines its pitch
fugue
composition or technique in which a melodic theme is subjected to melodic imitation
galliard
lively court dance in triple meter; popular in 16th and early 17th centuries; paired with the pavane
Gregorian chant
also called a plainsong; liturgical chants to Latin text used since the Middle Ages
Harmonics
overtones produced by a fundamental tone; sounds heard together when a sound is produced by a vibrating string or air column
harmony
the combo of more than one musical pitch at a time and the subsequent relationships between intervals and chords
hertz
unit of measure of frequency
heterophony
a texture in which several different versions of the same melody are played simultaneously
homophony
a texture with one melody and varied supporting accompaniment; parts generally move together
homorythmic
a texture in which the melody and the supporting parts perform similar rhythms
idiophone
an instrument that produces sound by being struck, plucked, rubbed, or bowed
interval
the distance between two pitches
key
the tonality and major or minor scale of a piece of music
key signature
group of flats of sharps placed on the staff at the beginnin of a piece; indicates tonality
largo
very slow
leading tone
7th degree of a scale; a semitone below the tonic, gives music a sense of leading back to the tonic
leitmotif
theme or musical idea that represents a character or concept in a dramatic work
libretto
the text of an opera or oratorio
madrigal
secular Renaissance composition of poetic text for several unaccompanied vocal parts
major scale
a scale in which the distance from the first to the third note is four semitones
measure
a metrical division of music; marked by bar lines
melisma
a succession of notes sung on one syllable
melody
a sequence of musical pitches with a recognizable shape or tune
membranophone
an instrument that produces sound when its stretched membrane is struck or rubbed
meter
the grouping of beats to a regular pulse
mezzo forte
medium loud
mezzo piano
medium soft/quiet
mezzo-soprano
a female voice with a range midway between soprano and alto
minor scale
a scale in which the distance between the first and third notes is 3 semitones
monophony
a texture with only one melody and no supporting accompaniment
motet
polyphonic choral work; from 13th to the 18th centuries; used by Roman Catholic Church
movement
a self-contained section of a larger musical work
octave
the interval between two notes of the same name
opera
sung drama that is set to music and has costumes and scenery and usually a secular theme
opus
Latin word for"work" that is used with a number to sequence and identify the work of a composer
oratorio
sung drama that is performed chorally with no costuming or scenery and has a religious theme
organum
a type of medieval polyphony with one or more voices added to a plainsong
pavane
slow court dance in duple meter popular in the 16th and early 17th centuries; paired with a galliard
pianissimo
very quiet/soft
piano
quiet/soft
pitch
the highness or lowness of a sound
polymeter
the simultaneous use of more than one meter
polyphony
a texture in which two or more melodic lines are combined
polyrhythm
the use of simultaneous contrasting rhythms
presto
very fast
program music
instrumental music that is narrative or descriptive of a nonmusical idea; eg. a painting
reed
flexible strip of cane into a the mouthpiece of certain instruments; or an instrument, such as an oboe, that is fitted with a reed
resonance
the amplification or prolongation of a musical tone produced by sympathetic vibration
rest
indicates a period of silence
rhythm
the organization of sounds and silences through time
ritornello
a recurring section in a piece of music
rounded binary
an extension of the binary form wherein the 1st section is repeated at the end
rondo
form that has a repeating 'A' section, which alterates with two or more contrasting sections
scale
a set of conjunct pitches withing an octave used for musical composition
score
the written form of a musical composition for several performers
sonata
a piece in several movements for a small ensemble, soloist with accompaniment, or solo keyboard
soprano
the highest female voice
staff
a set of five horizontal lines on and between which music is notated
strophic
refers to songs in which each stanza or verse is played/sung to the same music
symphonic poem
an orchestral piece based on a nonmusical idea
symphony
an extended orchestral work, usually in several movements
syncopation
the stressing of beats that are normally unstressed
tempo
the speed of a musical piece
ternary form
comprised of 3 sections, with the third being a repitition of the 1st (ABA)
texture
the manner in which linear musical parts are blended
theme and variation
one melodic idea is repeated with variations that may be rhythmic, melodic, harmonic
through-composed
each stanza or verse is set to different music so that there is no repeating section
timbre
the characteristic of instrumental and vocal sounds that make them distinguishable to the ear; tone color
time signature
the figures of the staff at the beginning of a piece that indicate its meter
tonality
the feeling of pull toward a particular tone, which is determined by the key of the music
tonic
the main note of a major or minor key
treble clef
a symbol that indicates that the 2nd line from the bottom of the staff represents the pitch of G above middle C; also a G clef
triad
a basic chord combining a beginning note and the 3rd and 5th notes above it
12-bar blues
a form of African American popular music
verse-chorus
a 2 part form with text changing in the verse section and repeated in the chorus section
vivace
quick, lively tempo
word-painting
a technique whereby the written text of a song is illustrated musically
wind instruments
also called aerophones; create sound via vibration of a column of air inside the instrument
woodwinds
flute, clarinet, saxophone