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131 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
percieved discrepancy b/t the current state of affairs and desired state
choices we make among alternatives
program decesions
well structured for certain things that arise
non-program decesions
new situation or unique experience
3 types of programmed decesions
2.porcedure-more specific
3.rules-very specfic
6 steps in rational decesion making
1.define the problem
2.indentify the decesino
3.allocate weights to the criteria
4.develop the alternatives
5.evaluate ' ' the best
-decesion by itself changes nothing..must be implemented
-decesion quality can only be determined from consequences
evaluation decesion effectiveness-5
1.problem still exsist?
2.problem defined properly?
3.alternatives evaluated?
4.right one chosen?
5.implementation effective?
rational decesion making
how we should behave to maxamize outcome
myth of rationality
-org.'s are not emotion free
-emotions of any kind are bad-> good goal but not rational
bounded rationality
pick the first decesion that satisfices our needs....make decesions by constructing simplified models that extract the essential features from the problems w/out capturing all their complexity
3 decesion making conditions
role of intuition
previous experience...gut level
escalations of commitemtn
continuous commitment to a previous bad decesion
intuitive decesion making
making decesions on the basis of experience, feelings, and judgement
selecting a solution that is satisfactory rather than the best decesion
3 ethical decesion criteria
1.utilitarianism-greatest good for greatest number
2.rights -respecting and protecting basic rights
3.justice-imposing and enforcing rules fairly
5 ways to improvme decesion making style
1.adjust your style to fit situation aware of biases
3.combine rational anaylis w/ intutiion
4.dont assume decesion is approriate in every situation creative
combining new ideas in unique ways or associating ideas in unusual ways
turning creative ideas into useful products, services, or methods of operation
2 or more indiviudals interacting and interdependent who have come together to achive paricular objective
formal and informal groups
f-managment team
i-friend group
why we join groups -6
6.goal achievement
categories of teams
probelm solving teams
5-12 employees from same dept. to solve work problems
cross-functional teams
employees from different depts. taht come together to probelm solve
virtual teams
teams taht use computer technology to coordinate in brazil, france, etc.
stages of development
punctuated equilibrium theory
nothing gets accomplished until the 2nd half of the alloted time in groups
-when any event depends more than one single agent
-when one person does not control all the conditions neccessary for achieving the desired outcome
why are teams so popular
-out perform individ.
-use employee talents better
-more flexible
expected behvaior patterns
role identity
certain attitudes and behavior consistent w/ a role
role perception
view of how individual is supposed to act in a given stiuatino
role expectations
how others think an individual should act
psychological contract
unwritten contract b/t management expects from employee(vice-versa)
role conflict
situation where individual is confronted by divergent role expectations
acceptable standards of behavior w/in a group that are shared by the group members
adjusting ones behavior to align w/ the norms of the group
reference groups
important groups to which individuals belong to or hope to belong to
asch's study
people in group were looking at size of line. person in on it woudl say the wrong answer and everyone would agree with the person
deviant behavior
inappropirate anti-social norms taht are intentionally violating the norms-->resualt in negative consequence for individ and org.
4 types of deviant behavior
1.production:leave early/work slow
4.personal agresssion: sexual harrassement
socially defined position or rank given to group members
social loafing
tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working in group(free-rider)
ringlemen effect
tug-of-war experiement...less inidivdual effot in groups than when working by yourself
best types of groups
odd number and 7 or 9
small groups
tasks faster
better use of facts
large groups
solove problems better
diverse input
better fact-finder
group demography
share a commmon contribution(sex,age)
individuals in a group w/ common attribute
degree to which people are attracted to each other...motivated to stay in group
realationship b/t performance and productivity
-hight cohesivness and high perform norms: high productiv
-high cohsiv and low norms: low productivity
low cohesino
no too much performance w/ some productivity
high cohesion
really productive or really bad(extremes)
group think
phenomenon in which the norms for consequences overrides the realistic apprasial of alternative course of action
-rationalize resistance
-direct preassure on unapposed
-illusion of unamity
group shift
change in decesion risk b/t the groups decesion and the individ decesion that member w/in the group would make
action of 2 or more substances-result in a different effect from individ summation of individ
more preense of someone that is watching you causes your to chang your beavhior
decesion making techniques for groups
2.nominal technique
3.electronic meetings
4.delphi technique
group behavior model
external conditions--recourcs---processes---peformance
group effectivness
basse compensation on what the group does. give group money and let them split it up
transfer and understanding of meaning
message was recieved in a form that can be interpreted by the reciever
interpersonal comm.
comm. b/t 2 or more people
org. comm.
all the patterns, networks and systems of comm.'s w/ in a org.
4 functions of comm.
4.emotional expression
medium selected by teh sender through which the message travels to the reciever
formal channels
established by the org. and transmit messages that are related to the professional activies of members
informal channels
transmit personal or social messages in the org. these are spontaneous and emerge as a response in individ choice
directions of comm.
common formal small group netoworks
-all channel
rumors result from
uncertainity and ambiguos situations
low and high richness
high-face to face
poltically correct comm.
certain words that sterotype, intimidate and insult individs. we dont know what the new words mean(phyciall challenged..wheelchair)
high contexyt cultures
cultures that rely heavily on non-vermal cues
low-context cultures
cultures that rely realy heavily on words to convey meaning in comm.
active listening
-dont overtalk
-be empathetic
-make eye contact
-head nods
appointed and have formal authority
can influence others to achieve goal
trait theory
leaders born not made...consider personality, social, physical
behavioral theory
leadership can be taught
contingency/situational thoery
leadership effectivness depends on the situation
iniating structure
defining, stucturing the task. leader structures roles of subordinates
extent to which a leader is less likely to have job reltionships characterized by mutual trust, respect for subordiantes ideas
employee-oriened leader(mich)
emphasizing interpersonal relations, taking a personal interest in the needs of employees and accepting individ differences
production oriented leader(mich)
emphasizes task aspects of the job
ohio and mich in general
leaders can be trained and developed. cant generalize every situation
fielder model
match situation to particual leadership style leaders style of interacting and degree to which the situation allows the leaders to control influence
fielder model continued
-leaders dont readily change style
-match leader to situation or change situation to leader
least preferred co-worker
way in which a leader will evaluate least preferred co-worker...task or realtionship oriented
leader member relations
degre of confidence, trust, and respect subordiantes have in their leader
task structure
degree to which job assignments are procedurized
position power
formal structure in org..power to hire, fire, etc
cognitive resource theory
expericence helps in stressful situations. intelligence contributes in only stress free conditons using normal problem solving behaviors
contingency approach:hersey blanchard
assumes leader can change their behavior. have to have ability and willingness
situational leadership theory
focues on follwer readiness. more ready the followers(wiling and able) less need for supervision
path goal theory
leader must help followers attaining goals and reduce roadblocks to success. leader must change beahvior to fit situation
leader role path goal theory
-increase valence
-remove barriers
-increase reward valence
leader-member exchange theory
(treating everyone fairly)select certain followers to be in and exhange....subordiantes have higher peformance ratings, less turnover
leader participation model
leaderhip thoery that provides a set of rules to determine the form and amount of paticpative decesion making in different situations
leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the directino of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements
transformational-4 I's
1.idealized influence-vision and sense of mission
2.inspiratinoal-high expectations
3.intellectual-promote intelligence
4.individual consideration-personal attention to each individual
charasmatic leadership theory
follwers make attributes of heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors
authentic leaders
know who they are and waht they believe in
ethical leaders
use ethical means to get followers to achieve goals
attribution theory
leadership is merely an attribution taht people amke about other individuals(ceo is not realy cause of stock price)
substitutes for leadership
expereince of wokers espcially in ambiguous jobs
capacity that A has the power to influcne the behavior of B
b's relationship to a when a possesses something that b requires
legimate authority
power a leader has is result of their postion
coercive power
power the leader has to punish or control
reward power
power to give positive benefits or rewards
expert power
influence a leader can exert as a result of expertise or skills
referent power
power from persons desirable traits or personal resources
power tactics by direction
up, down, lateral
responses to influnece
compliance is the most important
collecton of individs who come together to achive purpose
perceptions of poltics in org
decrease job satisfaction
increase axiety
increase turnover
decrease performance
impression maganement
individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them
when one persons perception that there about to feel a negative impact...its is a process with steps
human realtions view of conflict
conflict is natural outcome
interactionist view of conflict
conflict is positive
functional conflict
conflict supports the goals of the group and improves its performance
dysfunctional conflict
hinders group performance
percieved conflict
aware that conflict conditoins may arise
felt conflict
emtional involvement in a conflict creating anxiety, tensess
conflict process handout
1.potential opposition
functional conflict
reward dissent and punish conflict avioders
best alternative to a negotiated agrement...lowest accptable outcome
vroom model
deals with subordiantes