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153 Cards in this Set

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"To stand by." Caring for a woman and her offspring during pregnancy
The time right after a baby is born
Ater birth
peurperal Fever
serious form of septicemia contracted by a woman during or shortly after childbirth or abortion.
occurring or existing before birth
gynecoid pelvis
The best pelvis shape for birth
Anthropoid pelvis
Inlet is heart shaped
Anthropoid pelvis
Inlet is oval shaped
Inlet is flattened and oval shaped. C-section is required.
The time in a girl's life that menstruation first begins
Follicular phase
The follicular phase (or proliferative phase) is the phase of the estrous cycle, (or, in humans and great apes, the menstrual cycle) during which follicles in the ovary mature. It ends with ovulation. The main hormone controlling this stage is estradiol.
Proliferative phase
During the proliferative phase in the uterus, the wall of the endometrium begins to thicken. This phase of the uterus begins at the end of menstruation and lasts until ovulation, when the egg is ejected from the ovary. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), secreted by the anterior pituitary gland in the brain, targets the ovaries and triggers the maturation process of up to 25 follicles. Each month, only one egg is brought to maturity and is ejected from the Graafian follicle. About 24 hours before ovulation, the pituitary gland releases a surge of a second hormone, luteinizing hormone (LH), which stimulates the release of the egg out of the ovary and into the Fallopian tube.
Corpus luteum
The corpus luteum (Latin for "yellow body") (plural corpora lutea) is a temporary endocrine structure in mammals, involved in the production of the progestogens which are needed for the maintenance of a pregnancy.
Secretory phase
he luteal phase (or secretory phase) is the latter phase of the estrous cycle in animals, and the menstrual cycle in humans and great apes. It begins with the formation of the corpus luteum and ends in either pregnancy or luteolysis. The main hormone controlling this stage is progesterone, which is significantly higher during the luteal phase than other phases of the cycle.[1]
Luteal phase
The luteal phase (or secretory phase) is the latter phase of the estrous cycle in animals, and the menstrual cycle in humans and great apes. It begins with the formation of the corpus luteum and ends in either pregnancy or luteolysis. The main hormone controlling this stage is progesterone, which is significantly higher during the luteal phase than other phases of the cycle.[1]
The endometrium is the inner membrane of the mammalian uterus.
Fallopian tubes
The Fallopian tubes, also known as oviducts, uterine tubes, and salpinges (singular salpinx) are two very fine tubes leading from the ovaries of female mammals into the uterus.
Ovulation is the process in the menstrual cycle by which a mature ovarian follicle ruptures and discharges an ovum (also known as an oocyte, female gamete, or casually, an egg) that participates in reproduction. Ovulation also occurs in the estrous cycle of other animals, which differs in many fundamental ways from the menstrual cycle.
the process involves a sperm fusing with an ovum, which eventually leads to the development of an embryo.
In biology, meiosis (IPA: /maɪˈəʊsɪs/) is the process by which one diploid eukaryotic cell divides to generate four haploid cells often called gametes.
An oocyte, ovocyte, or rarely oöcyte, is a female gametocyte or germ cell involved in reproduction. In other words, it is an immature ovum.
A spermatocyte is a male gametocyte which is derived from a spermatogonium. Initially in spermatogenesis, a spermatogonium divides by mitosis into two so-called primary spermatocytes. A primary spermatocyte is also diploid, and, in turn, gives place by meiosis to two secondary spermatocytes, which this time are haploid.
Polar bodies
The Polar body is a cell structure found inside an ovum. Both animal and plant ova possess it.
Dizygotic twins
dizygotic twins that arise from two eggs released in the same menstrual cycle that are fertilised by separate sperm and then form two separate embryos.
Monozygotic twins
Monozygotic twins derive from a single fertilized egg that divides in two and then goes on to form two separate embryos
The dividing embryo that contains 16 or more blastomeres prior to cell differentiation
Ectopic pregnancy
An ectopic pregnancy is a complication of pregnancy in which the fertilized ovum is implanted in any tissue other than the uterine wall.
Trophoblasts (from Greek threphein: to feed) are cells forming the outer layer of a blastocyst which provide nutrients to the embryo and develop into a large part of the placenta. They are formed during the first stage of pregnancy and are the first cells to differentiate from the fertilized egg.
The chorion surrounds the embryo and other membranes. It consists of two layers: an outer formed by the primitive ectoderm or trophoblast, and an inner by the somatic mesoderm; with this latter the amnion is in contact.
The placenta is a primary site of nutrition and gas exchange between the mother and fetus
he blastocyst is an early stage of the human (or any other mammal) development early in pregnancy. It is the structure formed in early human embryogenesis, after the formation of the blastocele, but before implantation. It possesses an inner cell mass, or embryoblast, and an outer cell mass, or trophoblast. The human blastocyst comprises 70-100 cells. It is preceded by a zygote, the fertilized egg cell, and succeeded by an embry
The amnion is a membranous sac which surrounds and protects the embryo.
Implantation is a phenomenon in prenatal development, i.e. early in pregnancy. It is the event where the embryo, at this stage a blastocyst, adheres to the wall of uterus. It is by this adhesion the fetus receives the oxygen and the nutrients from the mother to be able to grow.
To become implanted in the uterus. Used of a fertilized cell
The outermost of the three primary germ layers of an embryo, from which the epidermis, nervous tissue, and, in vertebrates, sense organs develop.
The middle embryonic germ layer, lying between the ectoderm and the endoderm, from which connective tissue, muscle, bone, and the urogenital and circulatory systems develop.
The innermost of the three primary germ layers of an animal embryo, developing into the gastrointestinal tract, the lungs, and associated structures. Also called hypoblast.
Yolk sac
A membranous sac attached to an embryo, providing early nourishment in the form of yolk in bony fishes, sharks, reptiles, birds, and primitive mammals and functioning as the circulatory system of the human embryo before internal circulation begins.
An agent, such as a virus, a drug, or radiation, that causes malformation of an embryo or fetus
Chorionic villi
Any of the various fingerlike projections of the chorion of the embryo that contain fetal blood vessels and grow into the intervillous lacuna of the placenta.
the endometrium of the pregnant uterus, all of which, except the deepest layer, is shed at parturition.decid´ual
Amniotic fluid less than 300 ml or an amniotic fluid index of 5 cm or less.
the medical condition of too much amniotic fluid in the amniotic sac.
Wharton's jelly
Wharton's jelly is a gelatinous substance within the umbilical cord. It serves to protect and insulate cells in the umbilical cord. Wharton's jelly is a rich source of stem cells, which are widely multipotent.
Ductus venosus
In the fetus, ductus venosus shunts a significant minority of the blood flow of the umbilical vein directly to the inferior vena cava
refers to the number of times a woman has been pregnant
Para (TPAL)
A woman who has given to one or more living children. Term, preterm abortion, living.
a medical procedure used inprenatal diagnosis of genetic risk factors, in which a small amount of amniotic fluid, which contains fetal tissues, is extracted from the amnion or amniotic sac surrounding a developing fetus, and the fetal DNA is examined for genetic abnormalities. Amniocentesis is not performed for every pregnancy, but is generally done when an increased risk of genetic defects in the fetus is indicated, by mother's age (over 35 years is common), family history of genetic defects, or other factors.
Molar pregnancy-hydatidiform mole
Hydatidiform mole (or mola hydatidiforma) is a common complication of pregnancy, occurring once in every 1000 pregnancies in the US, with much higher rates in Asia (e.g. up to one in 100 pregnancies in Indonesia). It consists of a nonviable embryo which implants and proliferates within the uterus.[1] The term is derived from hydatidiform ("like a bunch of grapes") and mole (from Latin mola = millstone).
Incompetent cervix
During pregnancy, as the baby grows and gets heavier, it presses on the cervix. This pressure may cause the cervix to start to open before the baby is ready to be born.
Placenta Previa
A placenta implanted in the lower uterine segment near or over the internal cervical os
Abruptio placenta
premature separation of a normally implanted placenta from the uterine wall
hypertension after 20 weeks gestation with proteinuria.
Seizures occuring before during or after delivery
Gestational diabetes
Glucose intolerance of varying degrees diagnosed during pregnancy
A woman who has never given birth
A woman who is pregnant for the first time or a woman who has given birth to one child
A woman who has had 2 or more pregnancies resulting in potentially viable offspring
Linea Negra
the dark vertical line that appears on the abdomen during pregnancy.
Mucus plug
plug that keeps the fetus from getting infected from something in the vagina
A thick white discharge throughout pregnancy
Folding of the walls in the vagina
Montgomery's tubercles
tiny bumps that are scattered around the aeroles on the nipples of a pregnant woman
Striae Gravidarum
Stretch marks
The initial breast secretion produced during pregnancy rich in nutrients and contains immunity transferred passively to the infant
Chadwick's sign
a bluish discoloration of the cervix, vagina and vulva caused by venous congestion
Goodell's sign
t is a significant softening of the vaginal portion of the cervix during the 2nd month of pregnancy
Heger's sign
Softening of the isthmus, the area between the cervix and the body of the uterus, that occurs appox the 6th to 8th week of gestation
Braxton hicks contractions
Braxton Hicks are sporadic uterine contractions that actually start at about 6 weeks, although one will not feel them that early. Most women start feeling them during the second or third trimester of pregnancy. also called false labor
Where the baby drops farther down in to the pelvis
Bloody show
pinkish-tinged vaginal discharge, foten mixed with mucus, caused by rupture of cappilaries in the cervix as it begins to efface and dilate
A spate of increased energy before labor begins.
True labor
contractions that are closer.
pain does not go away when you walk
can start in the back and move to the front
Prodromal labor
In a prodromal labor, the early phase of labor (cervix dilates from closed to approximately three-to-four centimeters) is prolonged with contractions that do not increase in intensity.
Effacement of cervix
When the cervix becomes thinner and softer during birth.
Dilation of cervix
How boig the opening of the cervix has become.
Cervix is complete
When the cervix is dialted and effaced and the show begins
Fetal station
Where the fetus is in the birth canal
Fetal engagement
Entry if the widest part of the fetal presenting part of the maternal pelvic inlet, with the presenting part at zero station
Fetal floating
fetus is not engaged in the birth canal
A fetus whose presenting part is the buttocks
Transverse lie
when the fetal head presents it usually enters the pelvis in a transverse position facing the mother's side
the top part of the fetal head between the anterior and posterior fontanelles
straight up
head down
face down
a fontanelle (or fontanel) is one of two "soft spots" on a newborn human's skull.
The elongated shaping of the fetal head as it moves through the bony pelvis during birth
Fetal lie
in which way the fetus enters the birth canal
Mechanisms of labor
descent, engagement, flexion, internal rotation, extension, external rotation and expulsion.
frequency, duration, interval, peak firm and moderate, mild
First stage of labor
The first stage of labor is the longest and is broken down into three phases:

Early labor phase: Starts from the onset of labor until the cervix is dilated to 3 cm.

Active labor phase: Continues until the cervix is dilated to 7 cm.

Transition phase: Continues until the cervix is fully dilated to 10 cm.

Each phase is full of different emotions and physical challenges. It is one big adventure you are about to take and we would like to give you a guide for it.
Second stage of labor
Cervix is dialted to ten and you push until baby is born
Third stage of labor
delivery of the placenta
Fourth stage of labor
recovery and bonding with the newborn
Schultze mechanism
Expulsion of the placenta with the foetal surface foremost. shiny
Duncans method
Expulsion of the placenta with the bloody side foremost.
a surgical incision through the perineum made to enlarge the vagina and assist childbirth
Lochia Rubra
the first discharge, red in color because of the large amount of blood it contains. It typically lasts no longer than 3 to 5 days after birth.
Lochia Serosa
lochia which has thinned and turned brownish or pink in color
Lochia alba
ochia once it has turned whitish or yellowish-white
Supine Hypotension
dizziness and hypotension when you lay on your back caused by compression of the vena cava against the spine
opiate based drug
eepidural block
injection in the back to numb
Spinal block
injection into the subarachnoid space mixing with spinal fluid
use of medicine that provides partial or complete loss of sensation
use of medicine to decrease or alter the normal sensation of pain
Placental reserve
Can't find the answer to this one
hypertonic uterus
A tense uterus
hypotonic uterus
no basal tone in the uterus and can cause hemorrhage after labor
Amniotic fluid embolis
rare & incompletely understood obstetric emergency in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair or other debris enters the mother's blood stream via the placental bed of the uterus and triggers an allergic reaction. This reaction then results in cardiorespiratory (heart and lung) collapse and coagulopathy.
Uterine inversion
the placenta remains attached, and its exit pulls the uterus inside-out.
Prolapsed umbilical cord
a portion of the umbilical cord comes out of the cervix or vulva ahead of the fetus, this is called
Initiation of labor
Artificial stimulation of labor that began spontaneously but has p[rogressed ineffectively
Dystocia-shoulder dystocia
a specific case of dystocia whereby the anterior shoulder of the infant cannot pass below the pubic symphysis, or requires significant manipulation to pass below, the pubic symphysis. It is diagnosed when the shoulders fail to deliver shortly after the fetal head.
Vacuum aspiration
removing the contents of the uterus through the cervix. It is a method of induced abortion as well as a therapeutic procedure used after miscarriage
Forceps delivery
Delivery by pulling the fetus through vaginal outlet.
1st stage laceration
does not involve muscle
2nd degree laceration
involves muscle of the perneum but not the rectal sphincter
3rd degree laceration
involves all of the above plus the rectal sphincter
4th degree laceration
involves all the above and extending through the rectum
Precipitous delivery
rapid spontaneous delivery lasting less than three hours in duration
Cold Stress
back to this
the first stool of an infant, composed of materials ingested during the time the infant spends in the uterus
Bili lights
a blue light therapy that converts bilirubin in babies to be excreted in the feces and urine
damage to the brain centers from too much bilirubin
Homan's sign
an assesment for for thrombus in which the foot is dorsiflexed causing pain in the posterior calf
exercise that strengthens the muscles of the vagina
Uterine prolapse
uterus has dropped from its position within the pelvis into your vagina
Rectal incontenance
Post-partum blues
2-3 days after delivery but usually over after four weeks
The process of uterine contractions and shrinking that follows birth
after pains
post partum uterine contractions
Fundal height
t is measured from the top of the pubic bone to the top of the uterus in centimeters. It should match the fetus' gestational age in weeks within 1 to 3 cm, e.g., a pregnant woman's uterus at 22 weeks should measure 19 to 25 cm.
Erythroblastosis fetalis
hemolytic disease that attacks rbc's
Caput Succedaneum
a diffuse swelling of the scalp in a newborn caused by pressure from the uterus or vaginal wall during a head-first (vertex) delivery.
A bulge over part of the infant's skull, usually over the parietal bone on the side of the head; but definitely located over one of the skull bones and not randomly located
Ortolani's sign
hips are examined one at a time;
- flex infant's hips & knees to 90 deg;
- thigh is gently abducted & bringing femoral head from its dislocated posterior position to opposite the acetabulum, hence reducing femoral
head into acetabulum;
Barlow's test
identifies unstable hip that lies in the reduced position but can be passively dislocated (and hence unstable)
Fine hair found on babies
Vernix caseosa
the waxy or "cheesy" white substance found coating the skin of newborn humans
tiny white bumps on the nose and cheeks
blue hands and feet
Mongolian spots
spots that look like bruises
Telangiectatic nevi
most common type of vascular birthmarks in infants
Head Lag
pick up baby head falls back
Startle reflex
Suckle reflex. stroke the side of the cheek
Dancing Reflex
hold baby and put feet on hard surface and baby will dance just like bojangles
a permanent birth control method for men. In some conventional clinics part of the vasa deferentia are surgically removed, thus sterilizing the patient
Tubal ligation
a permanent form of female sterilization, in which the fallopian tubes are severed and sealed or "pinched shut"