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13 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Observational Studies
non-experimental, subjects are only observed
What is a case study?
intensive exploration of a single unit of study, such as a person, family, group, community or institution
What is Case-series?
a simple descriptive account of interesting or intriguing characteristics observed in a group of subjects
What are characteristics of a Case-series?
1. no control subjects
2. only subjects are ones with disease or condition
3. no research hypothesis
4. considered anecdotal
What are advantages and disadvantages of Case-series?
Advantages: relatively easy to perform and often a precursor to other studies
Disadvantages: observational, and usually consists of a small group
What is a Case-control?
retrospective or longitudinal; cases: presence of a condition; controls: absence of a condition; look for a characteristic or risk factor present in the cases but not controls
What are advantages or disadvantages of Case-control studies?
Advantages: useful in studying rare outcomes and allows for investigation of multiple predictor values

Disadvantages: only 1 outcome can be studied; the sample may not represent the tru population; measurement of predictor variables opens the possibility of investigator bias
Cross-sectional Study
simultaneous events (today, this month, current, ect)
Characteristics of a
Cross-sectional Study
1. Study that analyzes data collected on a group of subjects at one point in time rather than overa period of time
2. Epidemiologic studies, prevalence studies, surveys
What are the advantages and disadvantages of a
cross-sectional study?
Advantages: easier to perform; don't have to worry about patient drop out; efficient at identifying association; often used to establish "norms" of medical procedures or tests
Disadvantages: lack of control over all factors; may take a long time and be expensive
Cohort Study
a study in which some specific group is studied over time, although data may be collected from different members in each set of observations
Characteristics of a Cohort Study
1. a group of people
2. share a common characteristic
3. prospective
Advantages and Disadvantages of a Cohort Study
Advantages: able to study time between exposure and disease. study design doesn't require strict randomization
Disadvantages: lack of control over all factors. May take a long time and be expensive.