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321 Cards in this Set

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Herzberg's 2-factor theory:

* responsible for dissatisfaction if you don't have enough
* generally extrinsic to job
* E.G. pay, fringe benefits
Hygiene factors
Herzberg's 2-factor theory:

* Responsible for satisfaction
* Generally intrinsic to job
* E.G. Interesting, challenging work
Motivator Factors
Herzberg's 2-factor theory:

* Suggests that you can't motivate people with money
* Herzberg was wrong
* positive point: puts focus on extrinsic and intrinsic sources of motivation, need to pay attention to both not just one factors
Criticisms of 2-Factor Theory
Motivational force = E x I x V
Expectancy Theory
Subjective probability that effort will lead to performance of a given level.
Expectancy
Subjective probability that a given level of performance will lead to a given outcome.
Instrumentality
Subjective Attractiveness of a given outcome
Valence
In which theory:

* Individuals make judgments about:
* Own outcomes relative to inputs (see text @ ratios)
* Other' outcome relative to inputs
* Fairness of the situation
Equity Theory
reconsidering the same facts a different way, adding
new facts or perspectives to the mix, etc., so long as the evaluation
process is changed.
Cognitive Distortion
Theories of Justice:

Dealing with Distributive Justice
Equity Theory
Theories of Justice:

* Fair Rules and Procedures
* Follow existing rules
* "Voice" in the rules and their application
Procedural Justice
Theories of Justice:

* Interpersonal interactions w/ those in power
* Communication very important
* Interacting in ways that build trust
Interactions Justice
Goal Setting scope:

__________ goals are better than _________ goals
Specific, general
Goal Setting goal difficulty:

________ goals are better than ________ goals
Difficult, easy
Goal Setting:

Goal __________ is critical
acceptance
Goal Setting:

_____________ facilitates goal acceptance
Participation
Anything that follows a behavior and increases the probability that the behavior will recur
Reinforce
Theory where:

* Based on idea that environment causes behavior
* Stopping Unwanted Behavior
Reinforcement Theory
Using Reinforcement Theory:

* Identify and remove the rewards
* when rewards disappear, so dose the unwanted behavior
Extinction
Using Reinforcement Theory:

* Undesirable consequences after behavior
* Can lead to backlash against punisher
* Absence of punisher often leads to recurrence of unwanted behavior
Punishment
Using Reinforcement Theory:

* Method of reinforcing successive approximation to move behavior close and close to that which is desired
* babysteps
* Behavior shaping relies on use of both extinction and rewards
* Wyatt the soccer player
* Finding the reward is the most difficult step
Behavior Shaping
Reward Systems:

Trying to legislate fairness in reward systems (women make 25 to 35% less)
Government regulations
1. individuals are motivated by different things
2. these things change over time
3. motivation is not a single problem
4. diagnosis of the problem is critical
5. solution must be specific to the problem
6. motivation is a function of the social context
7. concept of fairness will change with the situation
8. Individuals are motivated to restore fairness
9. we get the behavior we reward
Important Truths of motivation
* Getting others to do things
* Incremental influence beyond authority
Leadership
* Sharing of power
* Employees both feel & act consistent w/ having power
Empowerment
What are these?

*Maintain self-esteem
*Listen & respond with empathy (sympathy takes responsibility away)
*Share thoughts, feelings, & rationale
*Ask for help & encourage involvement
Steps in Zapp
For Zapp! to work, people need:

* Mission, Key Result Areas, Goals, Measurement
Direction
For Zapp! to work, people need:

* Skills, Training, Information, Goals
Knowledge
For Zapp! to work, people need:

* Tools, Materials, Facilities, Money
Resources
For Zapp! to work, people need:

* Approval, Coaching, Feedback, Encouragement
Support
* Offer help without taking responsibility
* The plastic monkey...
* Overcontrol... situational control... underconrtol
Soul of Zapp!
_____ effects the following.

* effects turnover
* reduces training cost
* reduces theft and sabotage
* reduces absence
* loyalty
* customer satisfaction
* People who are less satisfied tend to unionize
* File more grievances with a union
Happiness
group of people who must coordinate activities to accomplish a task
Team
______ help to do the following.

* empower people to more fully contribute
* Raise productivity
* meet individual & organizational needs
* Flexibility, coordination, employee satisfaction/development, productivity
Teams
Nature & extent of interdependence should determine whether a team should ________.
exist
tunnel vision, "that's not my job"
Myopia
everybody benefits from the work of a few
Commons problem
* Cost for hiring, training, & salaries may rise
* Need more trainers
* May bring unrealized expectations for improvement
* Resistance by middle management & support staff
* Time lost in team meetings
Disadvantages of teams
* Improve work procedures (but not necessarily)
* Improve attraction & retention
* Increase staffing flexibility
* Increase product/service quality (e.g. Herbie's)
* Herbie's
* Increase overall output
* Reduce staff support
* Reduce levels of management
* Improve speed and quality of decisions
Advantages of Teams
* Define the norms of group w/ respect to:
o One Another
o Client
* Define clear objectives
o start w/ overall objectives
o Break down from there
* Determine roles & how work will be divided
o Project manager
o Task managers
* Each level of team's work (project, meeting, etc.) should be driven by purpose & objectives
Organize Team for Success
Leader, Facilitator - not "boss"
Project Manager
* Structure for accountability
*How Will follow-up by team be accomplished?
o Meetings (will consider)
o Email briefings
o Consider ability to readjust vs time efficiency
Team Coordination
* Focus on task
* Keep interactions positive
* Restart when stalled
* Summarize/clarify team decisions
Facilitator Role in Team
* ID key external constituencies & interact effectively with them
* Buffer team from political infighting (group maintenance)
* ID nature of interaction needed with each external constituency
Boundary Management
* Performance at task
o Productive output, satisfaction of external constituents
* Personal Need Satisfaction
o Enjoy process, cohesiveness
* Capacity for future cooperation
o Friction minimized, team & individual learning of new skills, perspectives, & behaviors
How effective is your team?
* Structure consistent to support team design
* Access to training, access to support & resources
* Reward structure consistent with team design
o You get behavior you reward
o rewards for improper organization level undermine teamwork
* Celebrate success
Organizational Design
As a manager what you do to one you do to _________.
everyone
Three factors of trustworthiness
Ability
Benevolence
Integrity
Factor of trust:

Skills and Competencies in the domain
Ability
Factor of trust:

Wants to "do good" for trustor
Benevolence
Factor of trust:

Follows values that trustor finds acceptable
Integrity
The Ability, Benevolence, and Integrity are are perceptions of the trustee, they are Not _____.
Trust
Trust is?
Willingness to be vulnerable to trustee when trustee cannot be monitored or controlled
A characteristic, habit, mannerism, or the like, that is peculiar to an individual.
idiosyncratic
Ability, Benevolence, and Integrity has accounted for what percentage of the variation in trust?
40-75%
Willingness to be vulnerable to trustee when trustee cannot be monitored or controlled. A behavioral intention (no action must be taken).
Trust
Trust is Not simply additive therefore?
more of one factor does not make up for lack of another.
How an organization uses its collective ability to make sense of and respond to its surroundings. It includes individual learning as employees interact with the external environment or experiment to create new information or knowledge, the integration of new information or knowledge, the relation and collective interpretation of all available information, and action based on the interpretation.
organizational learning
The study that had the following results indicates that?

* Sales were higher in stores where managers were trusted
* Profits were higher in stores where managers were trusted
* Employee turnover was lower in stores where managers were trusted
* All three were significant even with an n of 9
* Only published study that shows that higher trust in management shows a higher level of financial performance
Trust affect organizational performance
Increased trust has the following results which increase _________.

o Engage in important risk-taking behaviors such as:
o Delegation of risky task to employees
o Reduction of resources spent monitoring
o Sharing sensitive information; honest reactions
o Admitting mistakes (organizational learning)
o Focus of attention on work that needs done
+ E.g., Less "CYA"
o Less time and energy worrying
o Organizational citizenship behaviors
o Accepting and embracing change efforts
o Effective teamwork
o Less quitting/search behavior
Productivity
_____________ is the process by which an organization acquires the knowledge necessary to survive and compete in its environment. This includes the development of knowledge and understanding, shared among organizational employees, that leads to effective action.
Organizational Learning
The study that had the following results indicates that?

* Over a 9 month period they changed the performance appraisal system
* Virtually no change in trust for those who didn't experience the new system
* For those who did there was a statistically significant increase int he level of trust
* By responding to employees issues and complaints trust can be improved.
Changes in Trust for Top Management
By doing the following the manager can improve ________.

* One's actions lead others to form and continue to revise perceptions of ABI
* Self-examination of ABI through eyes of other
* How do my actions affect their perceptions of my ABI?
* Collection of data through more formal means
* Focus on problems as they are identified
Trust Levels
Because trust development is __________ it has the following charateristics.



o Slow to build, many positive interactions
o Quick to damage, destroy
o Chutes and ladders, longer to go up then to go down
asymmetric
The evoking of a shared or common meaning in another person
Communication
Communication between two or more people in an organization
Interpersonal Communication
The communicator, the receiver, the perceptual screens, and the message are?
The key elements of interpersonal communication
The person originating a message
Communicator
The person receiving a message
Reciver
A window through which we interact with people that influences the quality, accuracy, and clarity of the communication
Perceptual Screen
The thoughts and feelings that the communicator is attempting to elicit int he receiver.
Message
The pathway that completes two-way communication
Feedback loop
The words, their pronunciation, and the methods of combing them used and understood by a group of people.
Language
Uninterpreted and unanalyzed facts
Data
Data that have been interpreted, analyzed, and have meaning to some user.
Information
The ability of a medium of channel to elicit or evoke meaning int he reciver
Richness
A skill intended to help the reciver and communciatonr clearluy and fully understnad the message sent
Reflective Listening
Simple statments such as "I see," "Uh-huh," and "Yes, I understand."
Affirming contact
The verbal reiteration to the speaker of a shorter version of their point.
Paraphrasing the Expressed
Clarifying assumtions made about what the speaker said.
Clarification the implicit
When the receiver goes beyond the implicit or explicit thoughts and feelings of the speaker
Reflecting "core" feelings
This can cause discomfort and can be a source of embarrassment for the speaker
Silence
A nonverbal behavior that may help open up a relationship and improve communication between two people.
Eye contact
A form of communication in which the communicator and receiver interact
Two-Way communication
Communication in which a person sends a message to another person and no feedback, questions or interaction follow
One-Way communication
This type of supervisor is comfortable expressing themselves. They tend toward extroversion.
Expressive Speakers
This type of supervisor uses reflective listening skills. They are patients with, and respond to problems that employees, peers, and others bring them.
Empathic Listeners
This type of supervisor are persuasive rather then directive or autocratic.
Persuasive Leaders
This type of supervisor is capable of being sensitive to self-image and psychological defenses of their employees. They also can give criticisms and feed back constructively.
Sensitive to Feelings
This type of supervisor keep those who work for them well informed. They selectively disseminate information.
Informative managers
Aspects such as psychical separation, status differences, gender differences, cultural diversity, and language that can impair effective communication in a workplace.
Barriers to communication
Communication that can be agressive, attacking, and angry, or passive and withdrawing.
Defensive Communication
Communication that is assertive, direct, and powerful.
Nondefensive communication
Two types of defensive communicator
Subordinate Defensive
Dominant Defensive
power play, put-down, labeling, raising doubts, misleading information, scapegoating, hostile jokes, and deception are all?
Defensive Tactics
All elements of communication that do not involve words.
Nonverbal Communication
Proxemics is?
The study of an individuals perception and use of space.
The study of body movements including posture is?
Kinesics
Proxemics, Kinesics, Facial and eye behavior, and paralangage are all types of?
Nonverbal communication
Consists of variations in speech , such as pitch, loudness, tempo, tone, duration, laughing, and crying.
Prarlaungage
Forms, Policy manuals, and reports are all important forms of?
Written communication
E-mail, voice mail, and Faxs are all forms of?
Communication Technologies
An individual who is comfortable with an equity ratio less then that of his or her comparison to other
Benevolent
An individual who prefers an equity ratio equal to that or his or her comparison to other
Equity sensitive
An individual who is comfortable with and equity ratio greater then that of his or her comparison to others.
Entitled
changing the referent, Cognitive Distortion, Change own/other's inputs/outcomes, or leave the situation
Way to deal with perceived inequity
Two or more people with comon interest, objectives, and continuing interaction.
Group
A group of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common mission, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutally accountabe.
Work Team
All work teams are groups but,
not all groups are work teams.
The standards that a work group uses to evaluate the behavior of its members
Norms of behavior
The "interpersonal glue" that makes members of a group stick together
Group Cohesion
The failure of a group member to contribute personal time, effort, thoughts, or other resources to the group.
Social Loafing
A social process in which individual group members lose self-awareness and its accompanying sens of accountability, inhibition, and responsibility for individual behavior.
Loss of individuality
T/F:

Loss of individuality might cause people to engage in morally reprehensible acts.
True
Two types of group formation
Formal (organized/official) and informal (unofficial/emergent)
First stage in group development:

* Focus is on interpersonal relations among the members.
* Members assess on another with regard to trustworthiness , emotional comfort, and evaluative acceptance.
Mutual Acceptance
Second stage in group development:

*The focus turns form interpersonal to decision-making activities related to the group's task acompishment
Decision Making
Third stage in group development:

*The group has largely resolved the interpersonal and task issues.
*Member attention is directed to self-motivation and the motivation of other group members
Motivation and Commitment
Fourth stage in group development:
`
*A group has become a mature, effective, efficient, and productive unit.
*The group has successfully worked through necessary interpersonal, task, and authority issues.
Control and Sanctions
Purpose and mission, Behavioral norms, Group cohesion, and status structure are all?
Characteristics of a mature group
An activity directly related to the effective completion of a team's work
task function
an activity essential to effective, satisfying interpersonal relationships withing a team or group.
Maintenance function
A team that is part of an organization's structure and is empowered to act on its decisions regrading product an service quality
Quality Team
A small group of employees who work voluntarily on company time, typically one out per week, to address work-related problems such as quality control, cost reduction, production planning and techniques, and even product design.
Quality Circle (QC)
A social benefit of teams where:

Emotional and psychological closeness to other team or group members
Psychological intimacy
A social benefit of teams where:

Closeness achieved through tasks and activities
Integrated Involvment
a team that makes decisions that were once reserved for managers
Self-managed team
A top-level executive team in an organization
Upper Echelon
Ability to influence another person
Power
The process of affecting the thoughts, behavior, and feelings of another person.
Influence
The right to influence another person
Authority
The range in which attempts to influence a person will be perceived as legitimate and will be acted on without a great deal of thought.
Zone of indifference
Power based on an agent's ability to control rewards that target wants
Reward Power
Power that is based on an agent's ability to cause an unpleasant experience for a target
Coercive Power
Power that is based on position and mutual agreement; agent and target agree that agent has the right to influence the target
Legitimate Power
An elusive power that is based on interpersonal attration
Referent Power
The power that exists when an agent has specialized knowledge or skills that the target needs.
Expert Power
Access to and control over important information
Information Power
power used for personal gain
Personal Power
What are these used for?

1. Does the behavior produce a good outcome for people both inside and outside the organization?
2. Dose the behavior respect the rights of all parties?
3. Does the behavior treat all parties equitably and fairly?
Examining power related behavior
Power used to create motivation or to accomplish group goals.
Social Power
Managers who use _______ effectively have these characteristics.

1. Belief in the authority system
2. Preference for work and discipline
3. Altruism
4. Belief in justice
Power
The principle or practice of unselfish concern for or devotion to the welfare of others
Altruism
Influencing member by forcing them to do something under threat of punishment
Coercive power
Influencing member by providing them with rewards and benefits
Utilitarian power
Influencing members by using the knowledge that they want very much to belong tot he organization and by letting them know that what they are expected to do is the "right" thing to do.
Normative power
The members have hostile, negative feelings about being in the organization. They don't want to be there
Alienative memberships
Members weigh the benefits and limitations of belonging to the organizations. Businesses are good examples of this.
Calculative membership
Members have such positive feelings about organizational membership that they are willing to deny their own needs. The American heart Association.
Moral Membership
What are the following?

1. Ability to intercede for someone in trouble
2. Ability to get placements for favored employees
3. Exceeding budget limitations
4. Procuring above-average raises for employees
5. Getting items on the agenda at meetings
6. Access to early information
7. Having top managers seek out their opinion
Kanter's Symbols of Power
The use of power and influence in organizations
Organizational Politics
Actions not officially sanctioned by an organization that are taken to influence others in order to meet one's personal goals
Political Behavior
Pressure, Upward appeals, Exchange, coalition, integration, rational persuasion, inspirational appeals, and consultation are all forms of?
Influence tactics
Sharing power within an organiation
Empowerment
What are the missing words?
Risk, Risk-taking in relationship, and outcomes
A set of specified work and task actives that engage an individual in an organization
Job
Mental of physical activity that has productive results
Work
The way a person interprets and understands the value of work as part of life
Meaning of work
A framework for understanding person-job fit through the interaction of core job dimensions with critical psychological state with a person
Job Characteristics Model
The survey insturment designed to measure the elements int he job characteristics model
Jobs Diagnostic Survey (JDS)
A model that suggests that the important job factors depend in part on what others tell a person about the job
Social information processing (SIP) model
A set of characteristics that influence the organization's design prcoess
Contextual variables
The linking of departments and jobs withing and organization
Organizational Structure
The process of constructing and adjusting an organization's structure to achieve its goals
Organizational Design
The process of deciding how to divide the work in and organization
Differentiation
The process of coordinating the different parts of an organization.
integration
What are:
1. Formalization
2. Centralization
3. Specialization
4. Standardization
5. Complexity
6. Hierarchy of authority
Six basic design dimensions of an organization
A centralized form of organization that emphasizes the upper echelon and direct supervision EX: Independent landscape practice with one or two supervisors and no middle-managers
Simple Structure
Simple Structure, Machine bureaucracy, professional bureaucracy, divisionalized form, and adhocracy are the?
The five structure configurations for organizations
A moderately decentralized form of organization that emphasizes the technical staff and standardization of work processes EX: Automobile Assembly plant
Machine Bureaucracy
A decentralized form of organization that empathizes the operating core and standardization of skills EX: Hospitals and Universities
professional Bureucracy
A moderately decentralized form of organization the emphasizes the middle level and standardization of outputs EX: Valero Energy Coprotation
Divisionalized form
A selectively decentralized form of organization that emphasizes the support staff and mutual adjustment among people. EX: NASA
Adhocracy
Anything outside the boundaries of an organiaation
Enviroinment
The elements of an organization's environment that are related to tis goal attainment
Task environment
The amount and rate of change in in the organization's environment
Environmental Uncertainty
Mechanical Structure is?
An organization design that emphasizes structured activities specialized task, and centralized decision making.
Organic Structure is?
An organization design that emphasizes teamwork, open communication, and decentralized decision making.
The different stages or an organization's life from birth to death.
Organizational Life cycle
Which Face of Power does the following Represent?

* Socialized need to initiate, influence, lead
* Seeks to empower self & others to reach her his goals
Positive face of power
Which Face of Power does the following Represent?

* Primitive, unsocialized need to have dominance over submissive others
* Seeks domination control of others
Negative Face of power
What term represents the following?

* Power in action in organizations
* Engaging in activities to get one's way in organizational setting
* _______ are inevitable
Politics
What theory is this?

* A set of assumptions of how to manage individuals who are motivated by lower-order needs.
Theory X
What theory is this?

*A set of assumptions of how to manage individuals who are motivated by higher-order needs.
Theory Y
A simple, routine matter for which a manager has an established decision rule.
Programmed decision
A new, complex decision that require a creative solution.
Nonprogrammed Decison
A timely decision that meets a desired objective and is acceptable to those individuals affected by it.
Effective Decision
A logical, step-by-step approach to decision making, with a thorough analysis of alternatives and their consequences.
Rationality
A theory that suggest that there are limits to how rational a decision maker can actually be.
Bounded Rationality
To select the first alternative that is "good enough," because the cost is time and effort are too great to optimize.
Satisfice
Shortcuts in decision making that save metal activity.
Heuristics
A theory that contends that decision in organizations are random and unsystematic.
Garbage Can Model
The tendency to choose options that entail fewer risks and less uncertainty.
Risk Aversion
The tendency to continue to support a failing course of action.
Escalation of Commitment
An individual's preference for gathering information and evaluation alternatives
Cognitive style
* Basic assumption is people are lazy and wont do more then they have to.
* Designed around control
* Tends away from empowerment
Theory X
* Basic assumption is that people want to do good
* "people just want to be great"
* Tends toward empowerment
* Most people like to work in places that prescribe to this theory
Theory Y
Where you break down a set of tasks into groups
Differentiation
What group your skill set fits into
Specialization
Oldham and Hackman Component:

How many different tasks you get to do. Production lines do not seem to have this.
Variety
Oldham and Hackman Component:

Being able to say "i made that"
Identity
Oldham and Hackman Component:

What choices you get to make about your job
Autonomy
Oldham and Hackman Component:

To what extend do you feel like the job that you do matters
Significance
Oldham and Hackman Component:

What extend does doing the job itself let you know how your doing
Feedback
Instrumentality is usually lowered by ______ issue.
trust
* Can trade things against each other when their is more then one thing in the mix
* Throwing in the curtains when you sell the house
* What is the closing date
* what is the possession date
Bargaining mix
What are my other alternatives
BATNA
_______ BATNA puts you in a better position
strong
* what things motivate people
* Maslo's Hierarchy
* herburge but he is wrong
Content theories
* what is the process through which people are motivated
Process theories
What are these?

1. Scarcity
2. Resource interdependence
3. Incompatible goals and/or means to goals
3 Primary conditions for conflict
* Political activities are outcome of conditions
* To curb politics, understand and change the situation
* Environment: imposed demands & constraints on what organization does & how it dose so
* Differentiation: division of labor causes different subgroups w/ different points of view, goals, & tunnel vision
Pfeffer's Model of power & Politics
Not enough of desired resources for all
Scarcity
Parties related such that distribution of resources affect all in some way
Resource interdependence
Different desires ends or paths to them
Incompatible goals and/or means to goals
What four things are needed to turn conflict into politics.
# Importance of decision/issue/resource
# Distribution of power
# Coalition formation
# Bargaining
What are the following?

* Think in terms of building tong-term relationships
* Avoid Reliance on formal authority
* Foster a system of checks or constraints on your power
* Use your power and influence for ends that are not entirely self-serving
o Recognize interdependence and invest in others' agendas
* Realize that the ends don't always justify means
Rules of Thumb for Exercising Influence
__________ is an individual's estimate or personal judgment of his or her own ability to succeed in reaching a specific goal, e.g., quitting smoking or losing weight or a more general goal, e.g., continuing to remain at a prescribed weight level. self-efficacy
Self efficacy
A sense of value found to rest within the job. "I enjoy the work I do"
Intrinsic
A sense of value found to rest outside of the Job. "pay"
Extrinsic
Times when a manager should be ____________.
autocratic
____________________ is the willingness to challenge authority.
Power Distance
These are assumptions of what type of negotiation?

* Competitive, win-lose
* Goals of parties in fundamental and direct conflict
* Resources fixed and limited
* Each party want to maximize its share
Distributive Negotiation
The point at which a party in a negotiation will not go beyond.
Resistance point
The preferred outcome of the negotiation by a party.
Target point
Starting point for negotiation
Asking price/initial offer
Since you do not know the other party's target or resistance point they must be inferred, but what affects the quality of this inference?
Information
Negotiation Tactics:

Get info about other's position and settlement range
Ask Questions
Negotiation Tactics:

Listen for cues about other's strategic position
Silence
Negotiation Tactics:

Proposed alternative (acceptable!) position to solve problems, break impasse
Trial Balloon
Negotiation Tactics:

* Use carefully, not on impulse
* Esp. with minor issues
* Dramatize reluctance to concede; time for impact
Concessions
Negotiation Tactics:

Fabricate issue or overemphasize importance, then concede after lengthy debate (sub set of concessions)
Straw Issue
Negotiation Tactics:

Remind them # concessions you have made, thus how unreasonable that they are unwilling to concede this point
Make other side appear unreasonable
Negotiation Tactics:

* Ease tension
* Break momentum when you are the underdog
Humor & other diversion
Negotiation Tactics:

Must be able to justify and willing to enforce (Prevents the car salesman from waring you down. Say i need to leave at 1:30pm because i need to pick up my kids"
Deadlines
Negotiation Tactics:

Risky, affects tone of relationship
Threats
Negotiation Tactics:

Be sure you have time, willing to discontinue
Walkouts
Negotiation Tactics:

* Wrap up as soon as all your issues are settled before other side reconsiders
* Document agreement in memo, letter, or contract
Closing
Integrative Negotiation Approaches:

* Be soft on the people, hard on the problem
* Good for either type of negotiation
Depersonalize the problem
Integrative Negotiation Approaches:

Open/sharing vs disguised/manipulated(distributive)?
Create a free flow of information
Integrative Negotiation Approaches:

Can you find a larger goal that parties share?
Emphasize commonalities between parties, minimize differences
Integrative Negotiation Approaches:

Search for solutions that meet everyone's __________________
goals/objectives
Integrative Negotiation Approaches:

Must probe below other's position to discover ______________________. The other party might not be aware of them.
underlying needs
Integrative Negotiation Approaches:

# Stay firm on ends, be flexible on means to ends
# Promotes collaboration, not accommodation
# Care about the relationship in Integrative
"Firm Flexibility"
Integrative Negotiation Approaches:

What is driving them?
Recognize and understand both parties' emotions
Integrative Negotiation Approaches:

Don't accept or reject other's ____________.
Position
Integrative Negotiation Approaches:

Invite _________ and ______.
criticism, advice
A fast, positive force in decision making that is utilized at a leave below consciousness and involves learned patterns of information.
Intuition
A process influenced by individual and organizational factors that result in the production of novel and useful ideas, products, or both.
Creativity
Research has indicated that creative performance is highest when there is a match, or fit, between the individual and ____________ influences on creativity.
Organizational
Decision making in which individuals who are affected by decisions influenced the making of those decisions.
Participative Decision Making
A positive force that occurs in groups when group members stimulate new solutions to problems through the process of mutual influence and encouragement within the group.
Synergy
Simple rules used to determine final group decisions.
Social Decision Schemes
A deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment resulting from pressure withing the group.
Groupthink
* Illusions of invulnerability
* Illusions of group morality
* Illusions unanimity
* Rationalization
* Stereotyping the enemy
* Self-censorship
* Peer pressure
* Mindguards

Are all symptoms of what?
Groupthink
The tendency for group discussion to produced shifts toward more extreme attitudes among members.
Group Polarization
A technique for generating as many ideas as possible on a given subject
Brainstorming
A structured approach to group decision making that focuses on generating alternatives and choosing one.
Nominal Group Technique (NGT)
Gathering the judgments of experts for use in decision making
Delphi Technique
A technique for preventing groupthink in which a group or individual is given the role of critic during decision making.
Devil's Advocacy
A debate between two opposing sets of recommendations.
Dialectical Inquiry
Fill in the blanks.
Left Circle = Real Job
Right Circle = Performance Appraisal
Green Area = Deficiency
Red Area = Parts of job covered
Blue Area = Contamination
Any situation in which incompatible goals, attitudes, emotions, or behaviors lead to disagreement or opposition between two or more parties.
Conflict
A healthy, constructive disagreement between two or more people.
Functional Conflict
An unhealthy, destructive disagreement between two or more people.
Dysfunctional Conflict
Structural factor that causes conflict:

When jobs are highly ____________, employees become experts in certain tasks. Conflict may occur between two ___________ groups.
specialized
Structural factor that causes conflict:

Work that is ____________ requires groups or individuals to depend on one another to accomplish goals.
interdependent
Structural factor that causes conflict:

Any time multiple parties must share _____________, there is potential for conflict. This potential is enhanced when the shared ________________ become scarce.
Common Resources
Structural factor that causes conflict:

When work groups have ______________, these _____ may be incompatible.
different goals
Structural factor that causes conflict:

A traditional boss-employee relationship is hierarchical in nature with a boss who is superior to the employee.
Authority Relationship
Structural factor that causes conflict:

Some organizations have strong status difference between managers and nonmanagement workers.
Status Inconsistencies
The presences of unclear lines of responsibility within and organization
Jurisdictional Ambigudities
Skills and Abilities
Personalities
Perceptions
Values and Ethics
Emotions

Are all what?
Personal Factors
Conflict that occurs between two or more organizations
Interorganizational Conflict
Intra Means?
Within
Inter Means?
Between
Conflict that occurs between groups or teams in an organization.
Intergroup conflict
Conflict that occurs within groups or teams.
Intragroup Conflict
Conflict that occurs between two or more individuals.
Interpersonal Conflict
Conflict that occurs withing and individual.
Intrapersonal Conflict
A person's experience of conflict among multiple roles in his or her life.
Interrole Conflict
Conflict that occurs within a single role, such as when a person receives conflicting messages from role senders abou how to perform a certain role.
Intrarole Conflict
Conflict that occurs when an individual is expected to perform behaviors in a certain role that conflict with his or her personal values.
Person-Role Conflict
An aggressive mechanism in which and individual keeps up a dysfunctional behavior that obviously will not solve the conflict
Fixation
An aggressive mechanism in which and individual directs his or her anger toward someone who is not the source of the conflict.
Displacement
An aggressive mechanism in which a person responds with pessimism to any attempt at solving a problem.
Negativism
A compromise mechanism in which an individual attempts to make up for a negative situation by devoting himself or herself to another pursuit with increased vigor.
Compensation
A compromise mechanism whereby an individual patters his or her behavior after another's.
Identification
A compromise mechanism characterized by trying to justify one's behavior by constructing bogus reasons for it.
Rationalization
A withdrawal mechanism that entails physically escaping a conflict or psychologically escaping it.
Flight/withdrawal
A withdrawal mechanism in which emotional conflicts are expressed in physical symptoms.
Conversion
A withdrawal mechanism that provides an escape from a conflict through daydreaming.
Fantasy
Nonaction
Secrecy
Administrative Orbiting
Due Process Nonaction
Character Assassination

Are all?
Ineffective Techniques of dealing with conflict
A procedure set up to address conflicts that is so costly, time consuming, or personally risky that no one will use it.
Due Process Nonaction
Delaying action on a conflict by buying time.
Administrative Orbiting
Superordinate Goals
Expanding Resources
Changing Personnel
Changing Structure
Confronting and Negotiating

Are all?
Effective Techniques of dealing with conflict
A negotiation approach in which the goals of the parties are in conflict, and each party seeks to maximize its resources.
Distributive barganing
A negotiation approach that focuses on the merits of the issues and seeks a win-win solution.
Integrative Negotiation
These are all what?

Avoiding
Accommodating
Competing
Compromising
Collaborating
Conflict Management Sytles
These are the four steps of what?

1. Value diversity and confront differences
2. Seek mutual benefits
3. Empower employees to feel confident and skillful
4. Take stock to reward success and lean from mistakes
Creating a conflict-positive organization
A pattern of basic assumptions that are considered valid and that are taught to new members as the way to perceive, think, and feel in the organization.
Organizational (Corporate) Culture
Symbols of culture in the physical and social work environment
Artifcats
What members of an organization say they value.
Espoused Values
Values reflected int he way individuals actually behave.
Enacted Values
Deeply held beliefs that guide behavior to tell members of an organization how to perceive and think about things
Assumptions
Why would you pay attention to artifacts?
They are the most visible and accessible level of culture.
Psychological withdrawal from change
Disengagement
What are these?

Disengagement
Disidentification
Disenchantment
Disorientation
Four basic negative reactions to change?
Feeling that one's identify is being threatened by a change.
Disidentification
Feeling negativity or anger toward a change.
Disenchantment
Feelings of loss and confusion due to a change.
Disorientation
Unfreezing
Moving
Refreezing

Are the steps in what model
Lewin's Change Model
The fist step in Lewin's change model, in which individuals are encouraged to discard old behaviors by shaking up the equilibrium state that maintains the status quo.
Unfreezing
The second step in Lewin's change model, in which new attitudes, values, and behaviors are substituted for old ones.
Moving
The final step in Lewin's change model, in which new attitudes, values, and behaviors are established as the new status quo.
Refreezing
Reward System:

Reinforcer follows every respons
Continous
Reward System:

Reinforcer does not follow every response.
Intermittent
Reward System:

A fixed number of responses must be emitted before reinforcement occurs
Fixed Ratio
Reward System:

A varying or random number of responses must be emitted before reinforcement occurs.
Variable Ratio
Reward System:

The first response after a specific period of time has elapsed is reinforced
Fixed Interval
Reward System:

The first response after varying or random periods of time have elapsed is reinforced
Variable Interval