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52 Cards in this Set

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Encapsulation
The grouping of related ideas into one unit which can be referred to by a single name
Encapsulation saves:
Saves computer memory by using a repeating pattern of instructions and saves human memory through conceptual chunking.
OO Encapsulation
Groups operations and attributes into an object so that state is only changeable through the interface
Information/implemenation Hiding
Encapsulation's use for restricting visibility of implementation details
Benefits of Info/Implementation Hiding
Localizes design decisions (avoiding ripple effect) and decouples content from internal operation/representation
Attribute
"Externally visible property, may correspond to an instance var, but isn't required to"
Instance variable
implementation specific detail
State Retention
"objects have a memory of their state, the set of values the object currently holds"
Object Identity
Each object can be used separately through the reference of a handle or pointer (handles are unique)
Messages 3 parts
"1) Target's handle 2)Operation for target to do 3) Parameters, arguments, supplementary info"
Operation:
"What you want performed, an abstraction"
Method:
A specific implementation of an operation
4 Roles of objects in a message
"Sender, Target, Pointed to by a var in target, pointed to by a var in argument"
3 Types of Messages
"Interrogative, Informative, Imperative"
Interrogative Message
"Request that an object tell something about its current state, ""present"" oriented"
Informative Message
"Send info about something that has happened so a target CAN update itself, ""past"" oriented"
Imperative Message
Ask for the target to do something to itself or something in the environment
Classes are
"A ""stencil"" for how to make a type of object. Each one has the same structure and behavior as the class."
Inheritance
"IS-A relationship between class Y and class X, if Y is-a X, then Y has the attributes and operations of X"
Advantage of inheritance
You can first build a class for the general case and then add more specialized classes for special cases
Code Inheritance
the machinery used
Type Inheritance
What you must be able to do
Procedural Polymorphism: Overloading
"""static"" - operation name is the same but the list of parameters changes"
Procedural Polymorphism: Overridding
"""dynamic"" - pass the call down the inheritance hierarchy until you hit the most specific one"
Type Polymorphism 3 Abilities
1) to use any implementation of a single type 2) an object can be of two or more unrelated types 3) to use a specialized object when a more general ancestor is called for
Dynamic Binding
Runtime execution of the most specific version of a method when an operation is invoked. Prereq only for dynamic polymorphism
Genericity
"Using an abstract class to perform on different types of data, so that you don't have to rewrite the same code for int that you already have for double, usually acts upon container classes aka collections"
Quote: user centered analysis -J. Rumbaugh
"""The process of capturing requirements from the user's point of view"" or what's the user need to do? Okay, what do we need to put in to make that happen?"
Quote: Scenario -M. Fowler
"""Sequence of steps describing an interaction between a user and a system."" or flow of events that says what a user does with a system"
Quote: Use-Case -unknown
"""A set of scenarios tied together by a common user goal."" or buncha things the user wants to do"
Actor
"Some thing outside the boundaries of the system that acts upon the system (a role, not a specific person), NOT controlled by the system"
Things actors do
"use the system, install the system, start & stop the system, maintain the system, get and provide info for the system"
Parts of a use case prose
"title, id, actors, preconditions, flow of events, post conditions"
UML Class Diagrams - CSI
"Conceptual - models the domain, not the software itself. Specification - models the public interface. Implementation - gives the details of the implementation (code)"
Operations - CSI
Conceptual - gives the prose responsibility. Specification - gives what others know of how it works. Implementation - the complete code of the operation.
Attributes - CSI
Conceptual - the class has a property. Specification - the class can tell others about its property. Implementation Class X has property Y and the method getY()
Associations - CSI
Conceptual - these guys know each other. Specification - These guys are related in their workings. Implementation - These guys have pointers or references to each other.
Attributes vs. Associations - CSI
Conceptual - attributes are usually single values while associations may not be. Specification - attributes only imply one direction of navigation. Implementation - attributes imply a value while associations imply a reference
Aggregation Properties
Formed of homogenous constituents which may belong to multiple aggregates. Aggregate can exist without its components but may not be useful.
Composition Properties
"Formed of heterogeneous components which may only belong to a single composite. Composite has a parallel lifetime with its components. ""Heart is a component, hand is a constituent."""
"Association, Aggregation, Composition"
"""knows-a"", ""has-a"" replaceable/optional, ""has -a"" necessary/irreplaceable"
Classification Relationship
One is an instance of the other. Blue is a color.
Generalization Relationship
One is a specified form of the other. Pens are writing instruments.
5 principles of object oriented programming
1. Objects

2. Abstraction
Composition

3. Polymorphism
Overloading/overriding

4. Inheritance
Subclassing

5. Encapsulation
Information hiding

6. Decoupling

7. Modularity
Abstraction
Primarily defined by composition. A car is made up of a body, tires, and an engine.
Polymorphism
One name different meanings. Breaks down into overloading and overriding.
Overloading
Reusing the same name of a method with different parameters.
Overriding
Reusing the same method name in subclasses so that the subclass can perform a specific activity with that method.
Decoupling
Preventing interdependencies between objects.
Inheritance
Subclassing. Reusing all the abilities of parent classes in the child classes.
Encapsulation
Information hiding. Restricting access to the internal structure of an object.
Modularity
Allowing the reuse of code by creating modules that perform specific functions.