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23 Cards in this Set

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Gestational age (GA)/estimated date of confinement (EDC)
Age of fetus from last menstural period
# of live births/1000 people
birthrate
# of live births/1000 females =15-44 y/o
fertility rate
# of neonatal deaths/1000 live births =
neonatal mortalit rate
# of stillbirths + neonatal deaths/1000 total births
perinatal mortality rate
# of infant deaths/1000 live births up to first year of life =
infant mortality rate
What are typical signs and symptoms of early pregnancy/
Amenorrhea, n/v, breast tenderness, Chadwick's sign (bluish discoloration and congested appearance of vagina), and Hegar's sign (softening of lower segment of uterus)
At what GA can fetal heart tones (FHT) be detected by Doppler?
10 weeks
At what GA can the U/S detect a gestational sac and cardiac activity?
5 weeks and after 6 weeks, respectively
Name the three signs of fetal viability during pregnancy.
1. Fetal heart activity
2. Fetal movement detection by examiner
3. Embryo/fetus ultrasonic recognition
How early can human chorionic gonadotroping (bhcG) be detected in urine or serum?
As early as 8-9 days after ovulation
What is the doubling time of BhCG in early pregnancy?
2 days
When does BhCG peak in pregancy
8 to 10 weeks GA
Name three clinical scenarios in which quantification of BhCG is helpful
1. Diagnostic ectopic pregnancy
2. Monitoring neoplastic trophoblastic disease
3. Screening fetal aneuploiday
What is Nagele's rule?
EDC = LMP + 7 days - 3 months + 1 year (based on regular 28-day cycle)
What is the most common cause of size-for - dates discrepancy?
inaccurate dating
What are the physiologic changes of pregnancy in the following systems?
cardiovascular
Increased heart rate (HR) and SV -> increased CO; systolic ejection murmur (SEM) is normal finding; diastolic murmur is NEVER a normal finding; decreased BP (especially diastolic) - lowest at 24 weeks
What are the physiologic changes of pregnancy in the following systems?
respiratory
increased tidal volume and minute ventilation, decreased total lung capacity (elevation of diaphragm), increased total body O2 consumption, and hyperventilation (optimizes CO2 and O2 transfer between mother and fetus)
What are the physiologic changes of pregnancy in the following systems?
Gastrointestinal
N/v, reflux esophagitis, hemorrhoids, and cholestasis
What are the physiologic changes of pregnancy in the following systems?
Renal
increased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) 50%, decreased BUN and Cr, urinary stasis, and asymptomatic bacteriuria in 5%
What are the physiologic changes of pregnancy in the following systems?
Hematologic
Decreased hematocrit (Hct): increased plasma volume by 40% (due to increased plasma>RBC); hypercoagulable state; increased clotting factors (decreased protein S), increased venous stasis, and endothelial damage
What are the physiologic changes of pregnancy in the following systems?
Dermatologic
Increased estrogen -> spider angiomata and palma erythema; increased melanocyte stimulating hormone -> hyperpigmentation of nipples, abbdominal midline (linea nigra), and face (chloasma/melasma)
What are the physiologic changes of pregnancy in the following systems?
Endocrine
Increased hcG, human placental lactogen (hPL - insulin antagonist with diabetogenic effect), progesterone, estrogen, thyroid binding globulin, T3 and T4(euthyroid state), and prolactin