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30 Cards in this Set

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What are three theories that explain the impact of diversity

(understand their major arguments and the causality through which diversity affect group performance)
- Information/decision making arguments
- Social categorization theory
- Similarity/attraction theory
What is leadership?
Leadership is a process of social influence whereby a leader steers members of a group towards a collective goal (Bryman, 1992).

Leadership is the ability of an individual to motivate others to forgo self interests in the interest of a collective vision, and to contribute to the attainment of that vision and to the collective by making significant personal self-sacrifices over and above the call of duty, willingly (House & Shamir, 1993).
What are the major arguments of the trait-based approach to leadership?
Basic arguments:
(1) Good leaders all have some stable characteristics.
(2) Therefore, good leaders are born and can not be made. (3) The research focus is to identifying and measuring these traits and use these traits to select future leaders.

Three categories of traits: (1) Physical features
(2) Ability characteristics
(3) Personality traits

Limitations: (1) No single trait consistent predicts effectiveness of leadership.
(2) No empirical evidences for the existence of leadership profile
(3) We simply can not wait for the birth of the great man (Sarcastic??)
What are the major arguments of the leadership style approach?
Basic arguments:
(1) The effectiveness of leadership is determined by leaders’ external behaviors and exerted leadership style. (2) The emphasis shifts from who leaders are to what leaders do.
(3) Leadership is a behavioral pattern and can be learned. (4) Research task is to find the “right” styles and people can be trained to exhibit the behaviors and become better leaders.
Critiques --Findings are inconsistent; Focus is solely on formal leaders, ignoring informal leaders; Studies failed to consider contextual factors (e.g., task complexity and interdependence, subordinate characteristics)
Ohio State studies
Initiating structure vs. consideration: These are 2 consistent patterns, with both have high employee performance & satisfaction.

Initiating: leaders set up rules & ask subordinates to do things in a specific way.

Consideration: Take into account the human needs/satisfaction of subordinate
Michigan studies
Employee-oriented vs. production-oriented Emp-orient: (higher productivity & satisfaction) emphasize interpersonal relations; take interest in needs of employees & indiv differences.

Production-orient: emphasize the technical/task aspects, main concern was accomplishing task, grp members are means to an end
Managerial grid
Concerns for people vs. concerns for production; shows concern for employees and for production (integration of above). 9x9 matrix outlining 81 diff leadership styles
Scandinavian studies
Development-oriented behaviors, leader’s value experimentation, seek new ideas, generate/implement change
What are the major arguments of the contingency approach to leadership
Basic arguments
- There is no one leadership style that succeeds in all situations. Certain leadership behaviors will be effective in some situations but not in others.

-The task is to identify the fit between leadership behaviors and situations.
Fiedler model
effective groups depend on a proper match between a leader’s style of interacting w/ subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control to the leader.
(1) Least-preferred coworker: measure whether a person is take or relationship orientated.
(2) Situations
- Leader-member relations deg to which members trust/respect each other
- Position power: influence leader has over pwr variables such as hiring/firing/ discipline/promotions/salary
- Task structure: deg to which job assignments are produced
Hersey & Blanchards' SLT
Leadership effectiveness is determined by the interaction between leadership behaviors (task- vs. relationship-oriented) and the developmental level of teams (readiness: willingness and ability)

SLT: situational leadership theory focuses on follower’s readiness. Grid: able v. unable & willing v. unwilling *see drawing
House & Michell's path-goal theory
Leaders’ role is assistant, helping subordinates accomplish tasks

Leadership behavior:
- directive (lets know what is expected/schedules/ guidance)
- supportive (friendly, shows concern)
- participative (consults followers /uses their suggestions)
- achievement orientated (challenging goals & expects followers to perform @ high level)

Environmental factors (task structure/authority sys/work group) & subordinate factors (control center/experience/ability) affect outcome (performance/satisfaction).
Vroom & Yetton's normative decision-making model
Vroom & Yetton: Normative decision-making model
- The major part of leadership is decision making.
- Which decision-making style of leaders depends on situational factors.

- Autocratic (AI): without subordinates’ inputs at all
- Autocratic (AII): gathering necessary information from subordinates
- Consultative (CI): share problems with individual subordinates only
- Consultative (CII): share problems with groups
- Joint decision (GII): completely participative decision making
Leader-member exchange theory
leaders create in-groups & out-groups, subordinates w/ in-group status have higher performance ratings/less turnover/greater job satisfaction. Out-group gets less of leader’s time, fewer rewards/ leader-follower relation based on formal interactions.
Weber’s model of charisma
- Weber’s 5 components model of Charisma
(1) An exceptional leader
(2) A crisis situation
(3) The leader’s vision or mission, which presents a solution to the crisis
(4) Followers who are attached to the leader and buy into the vision
(5) Validation of charismatic qualities of the leader through repeated success
Major characteristics of charismatic leadership
Ability to identify deficiency in status quo Ability to formulate an idealized vision Extensive use of articulation and impression management skills Ability to instill value into followers and influence followers’ value and self-conception (Is Kobe a charismatic leader? How about coach K?) Use of unconventional and innovative methods to achieve their vision Sensitivity to environments constraints Sensitivity to follower needs Willingness to take risks and assume responsibility Willingness to sacrifice
Howell (1977): socialized vs. personalized charismatic leadership
--Socialized: egalitarian behaviors, emphasis on collective interests, develop and empower others (ex. Gandhi, UN)

--Personalized: personal dominance, authoritarian behaviors, emphasis on leaders’ self-interests, exploitation of others (ex. Hitler, Stalin)
Conger (1990): positive vs. negative charismatic leadership
When is charismatic leadership the most effective?
--Crisis and demanding situation: business downturn and startup

--Level of organizational hierarchy: the higher the level, the higher the influence. Why?
What is transactional leadership and its main characteristics?
--The relationship between leaders and followers is exchange; Followers obtain valued outcomes if they act according to leaders’ wishes. Bargaining is regularity between leaders and followers.
--Therefore, leaders’ role is to stipulate exchange rules (e.g., performance standards) and compensation.

(active, watch for deviation from rules & passive, intervene only if standards not met), laissez-faire (avoids making decisions/taking responsibility

Specific Components
--Contingency rewards
--Management by exception
What is transformational leadership and its main characteristics?
--Leaders move beyond exchange relationship to motivate and inspire followers by creating followers’ attachment to leaders, instilling values, transcending self-interests, and formulating visions.

Specific Components
--Intellectual stimulation: challenge followers to search for novel, creative problem solutions
--Individual consideration
What is the difference between transactional and transformational leadership?
Transactional- guides/motivates their followers in the direction of est goals by clarifying the role & task requirements.
Transformational- inspires followers to transcend their own self-interests & who are capable of having a profound effect on followers.

--Types of goals: transformational—vision vs. transactional—performance goal

Transformational/Charismatic better than transactional.

Typical outcomes: high attachment, obedience to leader, motivation, group cohesion, low conflict, empowerment
What is diversity?
Diversity is the situation in which the actors of interests are not alike with respect to some attributes.
What are three theories that explain the impact of diversity
- Information/decision making arguments
- Social categorization theory
- Similarity/attraction theory
Information/decision making arguments
- Diverse group members increase range of knowledge/abilities/info
- Diverse info networks
- Diverse info contributes to group performance.

Limit: pays little attn to grp coordination
- if diverse information is needed depends on tasks; diverse information adds more benefits when tasks are complicated
Social categorization theory
--Individuals have desire to maintain high self-esteem, which can be done by social comparison.
--Besides self-identification, uncertainty increases social categorization.
--To make social comparison, individuals first define themselves by social categorization using salient characteristics, which allows them to develop positive social identity.
--Social categorization creates in/out-group biases
--In/out-group biases increase fragmentation, polarization, stereotyping, and anxiety, impeding group processes.
Similarity/attraction theory
--Interaction between individuals follows the rule of homophily: individuals tend to voluntarily interact with similar others.
--Similarity is often defined by some salient attributes. --Similarity enhances group integration and cohesion, facilitating group processes.
How can we reconcile the contraction implied by the three theories of diversity effect?
-- Static View
-- Dynamic View
Static View
An inverted-U shape relationship between diversity and group performance: a homogenous group has no information advantage, some increments of diversity have large positive increases in group problem-solving capabilities, too much diversity may generate insurmountable group conflicts.

*see diagram
Dynamic View
In the short run, homogeneous groups outperform moderately or highly heterogeneous groups. In the long run, both homogeneous and highly heterogeneous groups will outperform moderately homogeneous groups.