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23 Cards in this Set

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Define Org Development
system-wide application of behavioral science knowledge to effect planned development and re-inforcement of org strategies, structures and processes to improve effectiveness and new competitive advantage.

The science art and methods for changing how orgs function.
Three OD methods
Interpersonal/Group change
systemwide process change
Grid OD
Interpersonal/Group change methods
T groups
Team Building
Change agent
Encounter group (type of T group)
systemwide process change
survey feedback. Data driven model for self-examination. Groups examine data and plan for problem solving.
Define Grid OD
Concern for people and performance, pre-packed, comprehensive long term effort to change entire org
First three Grid OD steps and what they accomplish
SII
These remove communications barriers:
grid seminar
intragroup development
intergroup development
Last three Grid OD steps and what they accomplish
MAM
These foster planning and goal setting:
Ideal strategic model development
Attaining intended goals/model
Measurement and process critique
Issues with Grid OD
Firms don't complete all 6 steps because of interruptions/suspension.
Firms not sure which steps had effects.
Two components of successful OD
matching method and depth. Multi-method more successful and lasting.
Successful sequence of change might be
employee engagement in goal setting/delegation of authority

introduction of SDTs and cross training

service quality training rollout

quantitative tracking of service quality

intro of team based bonuses contingent on service metrics
Define culture
beliefs and values understood by employees
Possible issues of fit btw culture and strategy
Acquired firm cultures may not mix

Environmental factors may change mission/goals/strategies

Strong cultures may adapt slowly to change

Threaten org goals due to legitmising infighting and secrecy
Contributors to culture
Founder/CEO
Socialization processes
Socialization processes
job previews
mentoring
management as examples
debasement/indoctrination
OJT
adjust rewards and promo system
stories about founder
High performance cultures should
align with strategic/market goals
reinforce financial performance
emphasize flexibility
HOME stands for
History - cohesiveness
Oneness - shared missions
Membership - raise level info sharing
Exchange - improvement/coordination btw int/ext parties
Home approach to improve culture is based on
management trust and respect of workforce
Why do organisations
have to change?
Environmental uncertainty (P9/14)
caused by
Environmental Complexity - number and variety
of external constituencies
and
Environmental Change - stability of the constituencies
and whether they change rapidly or slowly over time
3 ways to counter Externally induced change
change goals and strategies
tehcnology (IT)
org structure func to product,central to decentral
3 ways to counter Internally induced changes
Modify job designs
People (Mgmt takes pay cut)
Modify control systems (performance/reward
Results in modified behavior
3 conditions for successful planned change
employee dissatisfaction with status-quo

shared vision/mission

well managed process of change
Planned change consists of
unfreeze
change
refreeze
Key issues for managers of planned change
diagnose-change agent, steering committee

resistance-fear that cost of change exceeds benefit

carry-over-bringing outside exp/training to bear in workplace

evaluation-prevent fads by clearly defining areas to quantitatively measure

institutionalization-becomes permanent part of systes/culture and structure

diffusion-institutionalize throughout firm.