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21 Cards in this Set

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The concept of quality of work life (QWL) refers to
the extend to which employees are able to satisfy important personal needs through their work life.. This can be achieved through management’s design of more meaningful jobs which enhance job involvement and motivation
QWL programs have the following two effects:
a positive effect on the bottom line as well as meet the higher order needs of the employees.
scientific management).
were designed by managers breaking down work in to elements which were analyzed by number and time necessary to complete them
The primary tool of scientific management’s approach to job design were
time and motion studies

differential piece-rate pay systems

scientific selection of workers that possessed traits and abilities that closely matched the requirements of the simplified jobs
Impact of SM on workers
• Limited social interaction
• Low skill requirements
• Machine pacing
• Job activity repetition
• Task specialization
• Low employee creativity and ingenuity
• Tools and methods are pre-specified
The negative effects of this system (SM)
• Over-dependency on work rules and standard production rates at the expense of job control by the employee
• Employees often feel isolated from their co-workers
• Craftsmanship, pride in the finished product and product quality is sacrificed for job specialization and productivity
Job enlargement
a method of job design that increases the number of work activities in a job to decrease the extent of boredom and over-specialization
Job rotation
advanced job enlargement by exposing workers to a variety of specialized jobs over time.
Cross-training
a variation of job enlargement; employees are trained in different specialized work activities.
Job enrichment
also referred to as Herzberg’s two-factor theory) proposes that jobs should also include motivational factors. The absence of motivating factors leads to the loss of employee initiative, increased work apathy and the cessation of creativity
Herzberg’s principles of job design:
1. Give employees as much control over the mechanism of task completion as possible.
2. Hold employees accountable for their performance.
3. Within limits, let employees set their own work pace.
4. Design jobs so that employees experience accomplishments.
5. Design jobs so that employees lean new skills and work procedures
Skill variety
Extend to which the job requires a number of different skills, talents, and abilities to accomplish task activities.
Task identity
Degree to which the job requires doing a complex task from start to finish and experiencing a visible and identifiable outcome.
Social opportunities
Extend to which the job allows the employee to have social contact with friends and requires interaction with others to complete work
Task significance
Degree to which to job has a substantial and lasting influence on the lives of employees and other people in the organization and society.
Autonomy:
Degree to which the job gives the employee personal freedom and discretion to control work activities and schedules.
Feedback from the work itself
Degree to which the job provides direct and complete information on the effectiveness of the employee’s behavior.
Vertical loading methods are as follows:
1. Employees should be provided with direct feedback on their performance
2. Employees should be given an opportunity to learn new skills
3. Employees should be able to influence the scheduling of work
4. Each job should be given some unique qualities which differentiate it from other jobs
5. Employees should have control over job resources
6. Personal accountability should be increased
Why will interest in job design continue to grow?
1. Work design alters the relationship between people and their jobs, greatly expanding the number of available intrinsic rewards
2. Job design directly changes behavior since it focuses on what people do instead of what people feel.
3. Job design offers opportunities for initiating other changes e.g. create more flexible employee attitudes, foster innovation.
4. Job design helps organizations better satisfy employee needs
What problems can occur in job design?
1. Technology (technology requires machine pacing)
2. Program start-up and maintenance cost
3. Failure to consider employee preference
4. Managerial and union resistance
Socio-technical systems theory integrates
two opposing forces in the design of work: the scientific management and productivity emphasis on specialization, and the human needs and interpersonal relations aspects of the behavioral sciences concerned with human development in the workplace.