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27 Cards in this Set

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Organizational Behavior
the study of behavior and attitudes of people in organizations.
A manager’s job has three basic components:
1. Technical: Efficient use of resources to achieve output goals and the application of technology to achieve productivity goals
2. Conceptual: Development of new systems and methods of operation.
3. Human: Concern with employee welfare
Management
a process which is employed by individuals (managers) who are responsible for achieving organizational objectives through people.
seven key features of a managers’ job:
1. Managing individual performance (supervising)
2. Instructing subordinates (teaching and training)
3. Represent one’s staff (representation and advocacy)
4. Managing group performance (facilitation)
5. Planning and allocating resources (decision-making)
6. Coordinating independent groups (collaboration)
7. Monitoring the business environment (scanning)
Instrumental values
the means to achieve goals by using acceptable behavior to achieve an end state. Examples are: Ambition, Competence, Cleanliness, Courage, Self-control, Forgiving Nature, etc.
Terminal values
are the goals to be achieved or the appropriateness of a desired end state. Examples are: Achievement, Social status, Wisdom, Equality, Happiness, Inner Calm, Pleasure, etc.
The locus of control
as individual’s belief that one’s action influence to outcomes one experiences in life.Internalizers believe that they can change the outcome of experiences through their behavior. Externalizers believe that the outcome of experiences lies outside of their control.
Extroversion
the need to obtain as much social stimulation as possible from the environment.
Introversion
avoidance of external stimulation in favor of internally oriented, contemplative activity.
Machiavellian personalities (‘High Machs’) have generally the following characteristics:
• Attempt more interpersonal manipulations
• Are more inventive in manipulating others
• Conceive more manipulations to choose from
• Experience more satisfaction from successful manipulations than others
3 ocially acquired needs are
Achievment, affiliation, power
Need for Achievement is defined by the following qualities:
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• Taking moderate risks by pursuing goals that are difficult but not impossible
• Needing immediate feedback on performance and progress
• Finding task activities and accomplishments to be intrinsically rewarding, regardless of the financial or economic reward
• Defining work in terms of approaching success instead of avoiding failure
• Being totally task absorbed until the job is done
Need for Affiliation is defined by the following qualities
• Positive reaction to experiences that enhance belongingness, social involvement, and group morale
• Emphasizing that all group members are included in events that may affect the morale and cohesion of the group
• Solving or confronting interpersonal conflicts which threaten the esprit de corps
• Emphasizing the importance of social rewards such as recognition, praise, and public acclaim
• Reacting positively to social rewards which are made contingent on excellent performance
Need for Power is defined by
behaviors oriented towards influencing others and searching for opportunities to gain influence and control.
Personalized need for power is often unproductive because those individuals:
• Reject job responsibilities in favor of personal concerns
• Create tense work relationships among subordinates who become over-anxious
• Are poorly adjusted to work and frequently look to palliatives such as drugs or alcohol to cope with stress
• Project their own inadequacies on to others and thus eroding the work climate even further
socialized need for power tends
to achieve personal goals at work through raising the self-esteem of subordinates and colleagues.
Job satisfaction is determined by the following attitudes: 5
1. Satisfaction with the work itself
2. Satisfaction with pay
3. Satisfaction with follow workers
4. Satisfaction with supervision
5. Satisfaction with promotions
2. Expectations and how to mitigate their effect
The expectations regarding the job that are formed before the job is started are a major determining factor of the job satisfaction in the first few years. Internships and job previews can help to set realistic expectations.
Organizational determinants of job satisfaction
• Supervision: support of self esteem and self worth, consultation with employees
• Job challenge: design jobs to require creativity, application of personal skills, and risk taking
• Job clarity: understanding of what they are to do, performance feedback, chance to participate in job issues
• Incentives: Extrinsic (pay rise, promotion, praise, status symbols) and intrinsic (experienced internally, e.g. feeling of competence, craftsmanship) rewards
Equity Theory
employees make comparisons about the rewards that they receive relative to their efforts and performance levels. Further they make these comparisons relative to rewards, efforts and performance exhibited by other employees.
3 positive Consequences of job satisfaction:
• Mental and physical health increase
• Lower turnover
• Less unexcused absences
Job satisfaction can be determined through the following three methods:
1. Observation of employee behavior
2. Interviewing employees
3. Questionnaires on job satisfaction
Organizational commitment (definition)
defines as the strength of an employee’s identification with the organization
Organizational commitment components
1. Belief in and acceptance of the organization’s goals
2. Willingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of the organization
3. Desire to maintain membership in the organization
Contrast development time of job satisfaction and organizational commitment
Job satisfaction might fluctuate considerably over time while organizational commitment develops slowly and consistently over time. Employees with high organizational commitment are unlikely to leave their jobs even in a period of low job satisfaction.
Define Job involvement
work attitude that is defined as the degree to which employees identify with their job, participate actively in it and consider it a key determinant of their self-worth.
How can managers raise organizational commitment and job involvement? 5
1. Demonstrate that they honestly care about their employees’ welfare
2. Create opportunities for employees to achieve their personal goals
3. Modify jobs so employees have more opportunities to achieve intrinsic rewards
4. Find ways to reward employees regularly
5. Set goals with employees and be sure that some of them are personal development goals which are meaningful to the employee in question