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83 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
selective perception
process of filtering out information received by our senses. (influenced by characteristics of object and perceiver expectations)
Cognitive Dissonance
Occurs when we perceive an inconsistency between our beliefs, feelings, and behavior. It motivates us to change one of these elements. (Usually Beliefs)
Sensing- collecting info. through 5 senses, factual and quantitative details, synthesizing large amounts of info to form quick conclusions.
Collect info. nonsystematically, subjective evidence, use intuition and inspiration.
Rational cause-effect logic, scientific method, objective and unemotional.
Consider how choices affect others, weigh options against personal values more than rational logic.
Prefer order and structure, enjoy the control of decision making and want to resolve problems quickly.
Flexible, spontaneously adapt to events as they unfold, keep options open.
Maslow's Needs Hierarchy Objectives
Holistic - Integrative view of needs rather than studying each need in isolation.

Humanistic - Responses to higher needs are influenced by social dynamics, not just instinct.

Positivistic - Need gratification is just as important as need deprivation.
Maslow's Needs Five Categories




Potential has been realized
Achievement, recognition, respect
Love, Affection, Interaction
Stability; no pain, threat, illness
Food, Air, Water, Shelter

Theory X
Theory X - People are lazy, irresponsible, don't like to work; people need close supervision and threats to be motivated

Theory Y
Theory Y - People can be self-motivated, enjoy work, are creative and ingenious if given the chance to perform

Theory of Learned Needs
Consists of:



Achievement - Challenging goals, moderate risk, working alone, unambiguous feedback, often entrepreneurs, recognition over money

Affiliation - Approval, confirmatioin, avoid conflict, focus on relationships, better in coordinating roles, enjoy working with people, indecisive, perceived as less fair.

Power - Like to control people, maintain leadership position, use power for its own sake or to help others and improve society/ build the organization
Lawrence and Nohria

Four Fundamental Drives




Lawrence and Nohria

Four Fundamental Drives

Acquire - seek, take, control, and retain objects and personal experiences
Lawrence and Nohria

Four Fundamental Drives

Bond - form social relationships, develop identities by aligning with social groups
Lawrence and Nohria

Four Fundamental Drives

Learn - Know and understand ourselves and the enviroment around us
Lawrence and Nohria

Four Fundamental Drives

Defend - Protect ourselves physically and socially; only drive that is reactive.
E to P expectancy
Perception that an individual's effort will result in a particular level of performance
E to P Expectancy

can be increased by
Training employees, Selecting people with required competencies, provide role clarification, provide sufficient resources, and provide coaching and feedback
P to O expectancy
Perception that a specific behavior or performance level will lead to particular outcomes
P to O expectancy

can be increased by
Measuring performance accurately, describing outcomes of good and bad performances, and explaining how rewards are linked to past performance
Outcome Valences
Anticipated satisfaction or dissatisfaction that an individual feels toward an outcome
Outcome Valences

can be increased by
Ensuring that rewards are valued, individualizing rewards, and minimizing countervalent outcomes
Equity Theory
Equity Theory - Feelings of equity or inequity occur when employees compare their own outcome/input ratio to the outcome/input ratio of some other person.
Effective Feedback
Specific and relevant, timely, sufficiently frequent, and credible
Team Roles
-Help the team achieve its goals
-Maintain relationships
-Members take roles based on personality, values, and expertise
-role preferences are usually worked out during the storming stage
-Members often assume various roles temporarily as the need arises.
Team Norms
Informal rules and shared expectations that groups establish to regulate the behavior of their members.
- Members identify with the group and want to allign their behavior with the team values
how team norms develop
- people need to anticipate or predict how others will act
- members discover behaviors that help them function more effectively
-Past experiences and values that members bring to the team
Preventing/changing dysfunctional team norms
- Establish desired norms when the team is first formed
- Select people with appropriate values
Team Cohesiveness
The degree of attraction people feel toward the team and their motivation to remain members
Influences of Team Cohesiveness
Member Similarity(homogeneous)

Team Size (Small)

Member interaction (regular)

Somewhat difficult entry

Team Success

External Competition and Challenges
Forming Stage
-Members learn about each other
-Evaluate benefits and costs
-People tend to be polite
-Defer to the existing authority
-members try to find out what is expected of them and how they will fit in.
Storming Stage
-Interpersonal conflict
-members become more proactive and compete for various team roles
-coalitions may form
-members try to establish norms
Norming Stage
-First real sense of cohesion
-Roles are established
-concensus forms around objectives
-members develop siimilar mental models
Performing Stage
-More Task Oriented
-Members have learned to coordinate and resolve conflict more efficiently
-Develop trust
-Committed to group objectives
-Identify with the team
-shift attention away from task orientation to a socioemotional focus

-ending the relationship
Conflict Management
Interventions that alter the level and form of conflict in ways that maximize its benefits and minimize its dysfunctional consequences
Sources of Conflict
-Incompatible goals
-Task Interdependence
-Scarce Resources
-Ambiguous rules
-communication problems
Interpersonal conflict management styles
Problem Solving
in a conflict, a high level of Assertiveness and a Low level of Cooperativeness yeilds
in a conflict, a high level of Assertiveness and a high level of Cooperativeness yeilds
Problem Solving
in a conflict, a Low level of Assertiveness and a Low level of Cooperativeness yeilds
in a conflict, a Low level of Assertiveness and a High level of Cooperativeness yeilds
1.) Speak Freely
2.) Don't criticize others or their ideas
3.)Provide as many ideas as possible
4.)Build on ideas that others have presented

-more creative ideas
-participants interact and participate directly
-spreads enthusiasm
-Tendency of highly cohesive teams to value concensus at the price of decision quality
-Teams make sloppy decisions because they are complacent and have a false sense of vulnerability.
Social Loafing
People Exert less effort when working in groups than when working alone
Social Loafing
is less likely to occur when:
-Teams are small
-The task is interesting
-The group's objective is important
-Members have strong collectivist values
Legitimate Power
The capcity to influence others based on formal job descriptions, informal rules of conduct, and mutual agreement
Reward Power
Controlling the allocation of rewards valued by others and remove negative reinforcement.

(i.e. pay, promotions, vacations, work assignments(managers))
360degree feedback systems (employees)
Coercive Power
The ability to apply punishment, ensures that co-workers conform to team norms and controls co-workers' behavior

i.e. threat of firing (managers), sarcasm and ostracism (employees)
Expert Power
-Originates from within
-Capacity to influence others by possessing knowledge or skills they value
-employees gain expert power as society moves from an industrial to a knowledge-based economy
Referent Power
-The Capacity to influence others based on the identification and respect they have for the powerholder
-usually associated with charismatic leadership
Rituals: programmed routines of daily organizational life that dramatize the organizatioin's culture

ex: how visitors are greeted, how often execs visit subordinates, how long employees take for lunch
Ceremonies: Planned and usually dramatic displays of organizational culture to benefit an audience.

ex: publicly rewarding or punishing employees, celebrating a launch or newly won contract
Physical Structures
- Size, shape, location, age of buildings

Teamwork, enviromental friendliness, flexibility, or other values

-desks, chairs, office space, wall hangings, or lack of them

cultural meaning
Stories and Legends
-Serve as powerful Social prescriptions of the way things should or should not be done
-Create human realism to corporate expectations, individual performance standards, and criteria for getting fired.
-Create emotion in listeners
-> improves memory of the lesson
-communicates corporate culture
-Verbal symbols of company values

-Clients vs Customers
Forcefield Analysis
-helps us understand how the change process works

push restraining forces down to maintain status quo

driving forces move up to push organizations toward a new state of affairs.

-unfreezing and refreezing
Methods to deal with resistance to change
-Employee involement
-stress management
People resist change because:

-Social networks

Participative Management
-Improves problem identification
-creates synergy that can generate more and better solutions
-diverse perspectives -> better at pricing best alternative

Used when:
-you dont know the best answer
-when you're managing change
-when you dont care
John Kotter:

8-stage process of creating major change
1. establishing sense of urgency
2. creating the guiding coalition
3. developing a vision and strategy
4. communicating the vision
5. empowering broad-based actioin
6. generating short-term wins
7.consolidating gains and producing more change
8. anchoring new approaches in the culture
Stogdill's definition of leadership
A process of influencing an organized group in its efforts of goal setting and achievement
Traits of modern leaders
-emotional intelligence
-motivation and ability to use power
First Leadership model
-Challenge the process
-Inspire a shared vision
-Enable others to act
-Model the way
-Encourage the heart
-Specifies how employees and their activities are grouped together
-establishes chain of command -> interdependencies
-focuses people around common mental models or ways of thinking
-encourages coordination through informal communication amoung people and subunits
Simple Structure
-Employ only a few people
-typically offer one distinct product
-minimal hierarchy
-broadly defined roles
-difficult to operate as company grows and becomes more complex
Functional Structure
-organizes employees around specific knowledge or other resources
-encourages specializatioin
-creates common pools of talent
-direct supervision is easier
-may lead to focus on professional needs rather than on product or client needs
-usually produces higher dysfunctional conflict and poorer coordination in serving clients or developing products
Divisional STructure
-Groups employees around geographic areas, clients, or outputs
-accomodates growth and different products
-tends to duplicate resources
-resources not used as efficiently as in functional structures
-creates silos of knowledge -> lack of knowledge sharing
Matrix Structure
-Overlays two organizational forms in order to leverage the benefits of both
-usually optimizes use of resources and expertise
-ideal for project-based orgz. with fluctuating work loads
-improves comm. efficiency, project flexibility, and innovation compared to functional or divisional
-logical when two different dimensions are equally important
-increases goal conflict and ambiguity (decision making)
-employees more stressed, managers less satisfied
Team-based structure
-Flat hierarchy, low formalization, consists of self-directed work teams
-usually more responsive and flexible
-tends to reduce costs
-quicker and more informed decision making
-difficult to maintain due to need for on going interpersonal skills training
-employees more streesed due to role ambiguity
-team leaders more stressed due to increased conflict, loss of functional power, and unclear promotion
Principles of Organization
-span of control
-division of labor
-scalar process
Discretion is
the freedom to exercise judgment